Tangled Webs and History: Bioethics, Hastings Center, Eugenics, Gates, GMO's, Transhumanism

Dianne N. Irving
Copyright October 14, 2014
Reproduced with Permission

"Oh, what a tangled web we weave , when first we practice to deceive!" (Sir Walter Scott, Marmion (1808)

I. Introduction:

History -- accurate history, that is -- is often a great teacher that could bring with it needed clarity in identifying, addressing and then resolving many of today's vast and seemingly unconnected ills and dilemmas -- and thus help to untangle some of the massive sticky webs we find ourselves in today. With that in mind, it might be helpful to at least start the process of "untangling" by understanding how simple knowledge of the history of "bioethics" can provide us with background facts that allow us to identify, evaluate and remedy at least some of those tangled and interwoven concerns.

Thus the purpose of this article is to document the short history behind the formal "birth of bioethics" in 1978 and where it has led us since its formal "birth". Hopefully others will pick up the challenge and start connecting even more dots themselves. Who or what is it, after all, that so many people are really working with and for? It's long past time to clean out at least some of these messy sticky tangled webs -- and it's going to take a village.

II. Definitions of "Ethics" and "Bioethics"

If there is any one thing that historians of the history of philosophy learn early on it's to focus first and foremost on "definitions, definitions, definitions". The history of philosophy is replete with the use of "equivocal" terms ( same term, but different definitions) for propaganda purposes. (I routinely ask my students to give me a list of 5 terms, then send them home to ask any 10 people how they would define those terms. The results in the next class were often hysterically funny! Try it yourself!). So for starters, especially for purposes of untangling webs, it is important to get into the habit of asking people how they are defining key terms, like "ethics" and "bioethics".

Although bioethics today is often simplistically equated by many with "ethics per se ", that is far from the truth, and a lot depends on how "ethics" is being defined. Having taught the History of Philosophy for many years, it is at least historically crystal clear to any historian of philosophy that there are a dozen or more different kinds of or definitions of " ethics " throughout the history of ethics (a sub-field of Philosophical Anthropology, or how to define a "human being"). Each of these "ethics" is grounded on different "principles" or "norms", and therefore often come to contradictory "ethical conclusions". What is "ethical" in one paradigm is thus "unethical" in another paradigm -- often because the same terms are used but have very different definitions. Which "ethics" should we use?

Historically we also know that one of those "ethics" -- "bioethics" (aka, "Federal Ethics", the "Georgetown Mantra") -- was created fairly recently by the National Commission in their 1978 Belmont Report , 1 on Congressional mandate (the 1974 National Research Act ). This "bioethics", by the way, is definitely not the same as traditional "medical ethics". As one of 36 members of the First Generationers (the first formal graduate student group to seek graduate degrees in this new "bioethics"), I published an analysis and evaluation of "bioethics shortly after receiving my doctorate in it (as well as a doctorate in the History of Philosophy): see Irving, "What is 'bioethics'?" (June 3, 2000), UFL Proceedings of the Conference 2000 , in Joseph W. Koterski (ed.), Life and Learning X: Proceedings of the Tenth University Faculty For Life Conference (Washington, D.C.: University Faculty For Life, 2002), pp. 1-84, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_36whatisbioethics01.html . This article has extensive historical documentation and references about where "bioethics" came from before its formal "birth" in 1978 -- i.e., extending from the end of World War II to the formal "birth" of bioethics with the 1978 Belmont Report -- all of which historical references are also now quite relevant to better understanding the complex web that "bioethics" has entangled cultures in across the globe and across the fields since its inception. This same history of bioethics before 1978 will also help shed even more light on the following historical links with seemingly unrelated issues such as the Hastings Center, Eugenics, Gates, GMO's, Transhumanism, Gnosticism, etc. [A shorter version of "What is 'bioethics'?" in Irving, "The bioethics mess" , Crisis Magazine , Vol. 19, No. 5, May 2001, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_37bioethicsmess.html .] 2 So fasten your seatbelts!

[Please note that, although unusual (and perhaps irritating to some), I have nevertheless emphasized terms throughout (including in the "References") for those unfamiliar with some of the various issues to help them become a bit more familiar with (and therefore able to identify) how many seemingly unrelated issues are in fact related. Readers might even Google search or subsearch any of these emphasized terms themselves to discover (with appropriate reasonable caution) even more related issues. The various connections with bioethics noted below are simply representative of part of the tangled web that we have spun -- the "tip of the ice berg". But it is, at least, a beginning.]

III. Connect the Dots

During World War II, the British royal family physician Dr. Horder oversaw the entire Nazi medical program , was president of the British Eugenics Society from 1935 - 1950's, and president of the Voluntary Euthanasia Society . The U.S. branch was called the American Eugenics Society (see multiple documentations of connections of many early eugenics associations in endnote #2).

In 1938 a group of American Eugenics Society Members and members of Margaret Sanger's American Birth Control League (ABCL) formed the National Society for the Legalization of Euthanasia . 3 In 1952 the American Eugenics Society merged with the Rockefeller Population Council . This Eugenics/Population Council awarded a grant in 1968 to Daniel Callahan (as well as to Callahan's partner, ex-Communist behavioral psychiatrist Willard Gaylin ) to found the first bioethics Hastings Center in 1969 . [Note that this was before the formal "birth" of bioethics in 1978.] Callahan also worked with Rockefeller's Population Council , and was on the board of directors of the American Eugenics Society from 1987 - 1993 . 4 In 1972 the American Eugenics Society was reorganized and renamed the Society for the Study of Social Biology . 5 Leading bioethics fellows back then included Peter Singer, and Ezekiel Emanuel (current architect of Obamacare and brother of former Obama chief of staff Rahm Emanuel ). 6

A major funder of the brand new bioethics Hastings Center in 1969 was Monsanto , one of the major producers of GMO's (or artificially "genetically modified organisms). 7 Current Obama appointee Michael Taylor served Monsanto as Vice President for Public Policy, 8 and in 2009 Taylor entered government as Senior Advisor to the Commissioner of the US Food and Drug Administration for the Obama administration. 9 See an interesting list of similar Monsanto-U.S. government connections in the section on "U.S. public officials' connections to Monsanto". 10 (See also, Google. 11 )

The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has also long been involved in vaccines, pharmaceuticals, reproductive control, weather manipulation, global warming, and GMOs , etc. Bill Gates purchased 500,000 shares in Monsanto back in 2010 valued at more than $23 million, and now has a direct interest in seeing Monsanto succeed in planting GMOs around the world. 12 More recently Monsanto is partnering with various synthetic biology pharma organizations, 13 as well as being a sponsor of iGEM (which "teaches" high school and college students around the world how to do synthetic biology research to produced novel genetically engineered organisms) 14

Another organization birthed out of the American Eugenics Society was Planned Parenthood , headed by William Gates , father of Bill Gates . The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation , global promoters of population control, currently funds the use of midwives in Indonesia to "improve access to family planning " and " contraception ", 15 as do WHO, UNFPA, UNICEF, and the World Bank 16 -- and the Population Council . 17 The Population Council works hard to provide "safe abortions" around the globe. 18 See also links of Eugenics and Population Control with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and artificial reproductive technologies (ARTs, which includes both sexual and a-sexual reproductive technologies). 19 Several international organizations have been concerned with connections between IVF and ARTs and their use in illegal human trafficking , including forced/coerced " surrogacy ", and illegal trafficking in human sperm, human oocytes and a-sexually reproduced human embryos for purposes of implantation into women. 20

Many have concerns about the common connections among GMO's and transhumanism, 21 eugenics, 22 genetic engineering, synthetic biology and nanotechnology, 23 transgenders ("gender-bending") caused by certain drugs and environmental pollutants, 24 and the Russian Transhumanism Party's goals involving cyborgs, avatars, alternative intelligences, and (after 2045) posthumans (who are supposedly androgynous ). 25

Actually, transhumanism , by any other name, is nothing more than ancient Gnosticism rebranded and renamed for their current contemporary needs (often confusing to the Western mind, as these Gnostic pantheistic, polytheistic, paganistic, eugenic cosmic myths claim that "opposites are the same", so you never know for sure who you are working with or supporting). 26 Currently transhumanism is being absorbed into various religions . 27 Indeed, even the decades-old "Omega Point" and "Noosphere" of the Gnostic Jesuit archeologist Teilhard de Chardin , 28 whose archeological findings have been dubbed one of the greatest frauds of all times 29 (and since condemned but still popular within the Church), 30 is currently applauded by transhumanists as equivalent to their Singularity (what we fuse into when we transfer our brains into computers in 2045 and reach " Cosmic Consciousness ". De Chardin's efforts at " designer children " 31 and the use of synthetic biology and genetic engineering to achieve that goal retain their popularity even today at, e.g., the University of Arizona 32 which receives extensive grants for its transhumanism and synbio efforts from the MIT. Even bioethicist Nick Bostrom of Oxford University praises de Chardin's transhumanist achievements in several of his publications. 33 Transhumanism is also currently being absorbed into various political parties. 34 These Gnostic Transhumanist efforts are often sold to the public by bioethicists for supposed "beneficent" purposes (but might check out the very utilitarian definition of "beneficence" in the bioethics ' 1978 Belmont Report !). 35

Meantime, another bioethics founder (and member of the National Commission that wrote the 1978 Belmont Report ), Art Caplan , is on the Board of Trustees of the transhumanist/futurist/posthumanist IEET (Institute for ETHICS and Emerging Technologies 36 to ensure that whatever transhumanists/futurists/posthumanists do is bioethical. And bioethics founder Jonathan Moreno is "bioethics" consultant to DARPA. 37 Not to be outdone, we now also have "space bioethics" , with courses in "Introduction to Astronaut Bioethics" to address "reproducing in space, lifeboat problems, and other ethical quandaries that could arise if we travel to Mars" -- even offering ethical advice to NASA 's Office of Planetary Protection. 38

And speaking of NASA , the transhumanist/futurist/posthumanist Singularity "University" at NASA's Research Park in Silicon Valley, California 39 was co-founded by Google's Ray Kurzweil and NASA's Peter Diamandis . NASA's Peter Diamandis 40 is dedicated to transhumanism, and was one of the featured speakers last year at the Russian Transhumanist Party ("ZOYS") conference in New York. 41 It is worth noting that NASA was influenced early on by the Russian cosmist /transhumanist Fedorov 42 -- who even has a crater on the moon named after him. 43 Google official Ray Kurzweil was one of the speakers at the original 2002 NanoBioInfoCogno (NBIC) conference on "emerging and converging" technologies sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Department of Commerce at Jesuit Loyola University. 44 NBIC then morphed into the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC), whose 2005 report includes speech by transhumanist James Hughes , 45 co-founder with Nick Bostrom of the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies 46 (IEET) -- (with bioethics founder Art Caplan on their Board of Trustees).

Bioethicist Nick Bostrom Ph.D. is a Professor of Applied Ethics at Oxford University , and the Director of the Oxford Future of Humanity Institute . Dr. Bostrom co-founded the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies in 2005 and served as Chair of its Board of Directors until 2011. In 2011 he stepped down as Chair and was appointed as Senior Fellow . Bioethicist Bostrom also co-founded the World Transhumanist Association (Humanity+) in 1998 and served as Chair of its Board of Directors until 2009. Bostrom, along with bioethicist James Hughes, helped to formulate a more "kind and gentle" -- if not a rather convoluted and contradictory -- distinction between "positive" eugenics and "negative" eugenics for Humanity+. 47 (Try following the "logic" yourself!).

Professor Bostrom is a frequent spokesperson and commentator in the media, and has consulted for the President's Council on Bioethics (USA), the Central Intelligence Agency (USA), the European Commission, and the European Group on Ethics (Brussels), among many groups . Dr. Bostrom has a background in cosmology, computational neuroscience, mathematical logic, philosophy, and artificial intelligence , and his research addresses the philosophy of science, probability theory, and the ethical and strategic implications of emerging and future technologies . He is author of the book Anthropic Bias: Observation Selection Effects in Science and Philosophy (Routledge, New York, 2002), and has co-edited the book Global Catastrophic Risks (Oxford University Press, 2008) with Milan Cirkovic, and Human Enhancement (Oxford University Press, 2009) with Julian Savulescu. 48 Bioethicist Bostrom 's literary output is astronomical, 49 and includes debates supporting transhumanism, posthumans, population control, and "cognitive enhancement" of human embryos/fetuses and adults, as even featured in various volumes of The Hastings Center Report . 50 Indeed, the Hastings Center understood very early on the need for "reprogenetics" (which they refer to as "one big embryo experiment" !) to achieve most of the goals noted above in this article.

"Article excerpt

At the first of the discussions that led eventually to this report, a respected researcher-clinician in the world of reprogenetic medicine referred to his field as "one big embryo experiment." The phrase nicely captures what this report is about. It is about the ethical issues and policy challenges that arise in the context of researchers and clinicians doing new things with embryos. The range of such activities is wide and growing: from studying embryos for the sake of basic knowledge about developmental biology; to using them as sources of embryonic stem cells that can be coaxed to cure disease; to creating, selecting, and altering them for the sake of producing children . This report focuses on that last set of aims and emphasizes the need for improved public oversight--a need that grows more urgent as reproductive and genetic medicine converge to produce the new field of "reprogenetics." 51

All of which brings us back to the founding of "bioethics" and The Hastings Center. Yes, it is a dizzying tangled web, but unless and until it is identified for what it is we will simply continue to get further and further entangled in it, and the web will get bigger and bigger and bigger. Just FYI, here's a glance at the current Hastings Center efforts.

IV. The Hastings Center: (from its website)

** Special Report: LBGT BIOETHICS (September/October 2014)

"The Time Is Now: Bioethics and LGBT Issues"
Tia Powell and Mary Beth Foglia. "The Time Has Come: Bioethics and LGBT Issues" , Hastings Center Report 44, no. 5 (2014): S2-S3. Read full report FREE, Hastings Center Report - Wiley Online Library, at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hast.361/full


A. The Hastings Center

"The Hastings Center is an independent, nonpartisan, and nonprofit bioethics research institute founded in 1969. The Center's mission is to address fundamental ethical issues in the areas of health, medicine, and the environment as they affect individuals, communities, and societies ."

B. The Hastings Center Publications:



The Hastings Center Report
IRB: Ethics & Human Research
Special Publications
Bioethics Forum blog
Over 65 blog
Health Care Cost Monitor blog
Books and Monographs
Bioethics Briefing Book
Help with Hard Questions

The Hastings Center Report

The Hastings Center Report is a bi-monthly journal that promotes incisive and balanced inquiry into the ethical issues in health, medicine, and the environment. It includes essays, commentary, original scholarly articles, and occasional Special Reports.

IRB: Ethics & Human Research

IRB: Ethics and Human Research is a bi-monthly journal featuring scholarly articles, case studies, and special columns that probe the ethical issues confronting investigators, participants, members of institutional review boards, research administrators, and others involved in research with human subjects.

Bioethics Forum

Bioethics Forum , the blog of the Hastings Center Report, provides smart, graceful, probing commentary on topical issues in bioethics - patient care, health policy, medical science and research, biotechnology, the beginnings and endings of life, and environment and health. Read the Bioethics Forum blog.

Over 65

A blog by and for seniors seeking solutions to health care and security.
Read the Over 65 blog.

Health Care Cost Monitor

The Health Care Cost Monitor provided commentary and opinion on cost control as part of the implementation of health care reform and in the broader context of assessing national priorities. It is no longer active, but an archive of posts remains. Read the Health Care Cost Monitor blog.

Books and Monographs

Research at The Hastings Center frequently leads to collections of essays, single-authored books, and other reports and monographs. Over the years, these publications have provided some of the touchstones of scholarship in bioethics. Many of the collections of essays that emerge from the Center's research projects are published by Georgetown University Press in the series "Hastings Center Studies in Ethics."

Special Reports

Research at The Hastings Center also frequently leads to Special Reports published in the Hastings Center Report . Recent Special Reports have covered such topics as patient safety, palliative care, genetic research, and international medicine. They may be single-authored or collections of essays prepared by members of project working group.


1  See The Belmont Report , originally published in 1978, here republished on April 18, 1979, at: http://archive.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.htm . [ Back ]

2  FYI, see also a mini-version of my 400-page doctoral dissertation, "Philosophical and scientific expertise: An evaluation of the arguments on 'personhood'" , Linacre Quarterly , February 1993, 60:1:18-46, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_04person1.html . [ Back ]

3  Carole Novielli, "Just-Discovered Letter Shows Margaret Sanger Was Part of Euthanasia Society" , LifeNews.com, April 2, 2014, at: http://www.lifenews.com/2014/04/02/just-discovered-letter-shows-margaret-sanger-was-part-of-euthanasia-society/ . See also, Tom DeLay, "[Ezekiel] Emanuel reveals progressives' death wish" , The Washington Times , October 10, 2014, at: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/oct/9/delay-zeke-emanuel-reveals-the-progressives-death-/ . [ Back ]

4  Greg Gardner, "Population Control and Reproductive Freedom" , Christian Medical Fellowship Organization UK, Autumn 1998, at: http://www.cmf.org.uk/literature/content.asp?context=article&id=652 ; also, James Corbett, "Life and Death: Bioethics as crypto-eugenics" , The Corbett Report , April 3, 2012, at: http://www.corbettreport.com/life-and-death-bioethics-as-crypto-eugenics/ ; also, "Obama Nazi Health-Care Plan Revolves Around Hastings, Agency of the British Crown's Eugenics Movement" , GodLikeProductions.com, July 28, 2009, at: http://www.godlikeproductions.com/forum1/message850359/pg1 . [ Back ]

5   "American Eugenics Society" , Wikipedia , at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Eugenics_Society . [ Back ]

6   "Obamacare Architect Ezekiel Emanuel: 75 An Ideal Age To Die" , Real Clear Politics , September 22, 2014, at: http://www.realclearpolitics.com/video/2014/09/22/obamacare_architect_ezekiel_emanuel_75_an_ideal_age_to_die.html . See also, Tom DeLay, "[Ezekiel] Emanuel reveals progressives' death wish" , The Washington Times , October 10, 2014, at: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/oct/9/delay-zeke-emanuel-reveals-the-progressives-death-/ . [ Back ]

7  Wesley J. Smith, "Philanthropy's Brave New World: Will those who give decide who should live?" , PhilanthropyRoundtable.org, February 2001, at: http://www.philanthropyroundtable.org/topic/excellence_in_philanthropy/philanthropys_brave_new_world . [ Back ]

8  See, "Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars" , at: http://www.wilsoncenter.org/sites/default/files/sept_20_bios.pdf . [ Back ]

9  FDA News Release, "Noted Food Safety Expert Michael R. Taylor Named Advisor to FDA Commissioner" , U.S. food and Drug Administration, July 7, 2009, at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2009/ucm170842.htm . [ Back ]

10   "U.S. public officials' connections to Monsanto" , in "Monsanto", Wikipedia , at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsanto#U.S._public_officials.27_connections_to_Monsanto . [ Back ]

11  See Google: "Obama" "Monsanto" "appointments", at: https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=obama+monsanto+appointments . [ Back ]

12  Ethan A. Huff, "Bill Gates, Monsanto, and eugenics: How one of the world's wealthiest men is actively promoting a corporate takeover of global agriculture" , Natural News , February 29, 2012, at: http://www.naturalnews.com/035105_Bill_Gates_Monsanto_eugenics.html ; see also, Dr. Roy Schestowitz, "The Gates Foundation-Connected GlaxoSmithKline Indirectly Paid Scientists to Exaggerate Vaccine Needs" , TechRights.org, June 7, 2010, at: http://techrights.org/2010/06/07/gsk-philanthrocapitalism/ . [ Back ]

13   "Cellectis: Compact TALEN(TM): the next generation of TAL effector nucleases" , Market Watch , May 21, 2013, at: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/cellectis-compact-talentm-the-next-generation-of-tal-effector-nucleases-2013-05-21 ; also, "Intrexon Organizes Around New Synthetic Biology Markets" , Newswire , CNW , May 9, 2013, at: http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/1162425/intrexon-organizes-around-new-synthetic-biology-markets . [ Back ]

14  See Monsanto listed as a "silver-level sponsor" , at IGEM (International Genetically Engineered Machine Foundation -- Synthetic Biology based on standard parts", which "teaches" high school and college students around the globe how to do basic experimental research in "synthetic biology" and create their own genetically engineered microorganisms, at: http://igem.org/Sponsors . [ Back ]

15  Gabrielle Fitzgerald, "Midwives: Critical Players in Delivering Family Planning in Indonesia" , Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, "Impatient Optimism", January 16, 2014, at: http://www.impatientoptimists.org/Posts/2014/01/Midwives-Critical-Players-in-Delivering-Family-Planning-in-Indonesia . See also, Fr. Shenan J. Boquet, "Contraception's Role in the Election and Our Culture" , Human Life International , November 21, 2012, at: http://www.hli.org/2012/11/contraceptions-role-in-the-election-and-our-culture/ ; also, "RH Bill 'Definitely' Population Control Admits Co-Sponsor" , Human Life International , August 25, 2011, at: http://www.hli.org/2011/08/rh-bill-definitely-population-control-admits-co-sponsor/ . [ Back ]

16   "Integrated Management Of Pregnancy And Childbirth: Managing Complications in Pregnancy and Childbirth: A guide for midwives and doctors" , World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2000, reprint 2007, endorsed by the International Confederation of Midwives and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9241545879_eng.pdf . [ Back ]

17  Lisa Correnti, "Population control advocates plan to expand abortion through midwives" , LifeSiteNews.com, May 30, 2013, at: https://www.lifesitenews.com/news/population-control-advocates-plan-to-expand-abortion-through-midwives . [ Back ]

18  Population Council, "Safe Abortion and Postabortion Care" , at: http://www.popcouncil.org/research/safe-abortion-and-postabortion-care . [ Back ]

19  Osagie K. Obasogie, "Commentary: The Eugenics Legacy of the Nobelist [Robert Edwards] Who Fathered IVF" (October 4, 2013), Scientific American, at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=eugenic-legacy-nobel-ivf . [ Back ]

20  Hedva Eyal, "REPRODUCTIVE TRAFFICKING" , Council for Responsible Genetics, GeneWatch, as of Oct. 8, 2014, at: http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/genewatch/GeneWatchPage.aspx?pageId=313 . See also recent Dutch report on the use of "forced surrogacy" in human trafficking: "Trafficking in human beings for the purpose of the removal of organs and forced commercial surrogacy (2012)" , at: http://english.bnrm.nl/reports/organ-removal-forced-commercial-surrogacy/ ; see at bottom of website the hyperlink for the full report in pdf: human-trafficking-for-the-purpose-of-the-removal-of-organs-and-forced-commercial-surrogacy_tcm64-471941[1].pdf - Adobe Reader; see also: http://www.newpatriotsblog.com/news/trafficking-in-human-beings-for-the-purpose-of-the-removal-of-organs-and-forced-commercial-surrogacy/ . See also UNESCO report with concerns about the illegal trafficking of human sperm, human "eggs" and human embryos, including those asexually reproduced for purposes of reproductive cloning (implanting them into women), at: UNESCO report: Report of the Eighteenth Session of the International Bioethics Committee (31 May - 2 June 2011), Baku, Azerbaijan; Human Cloning and International Governance (June 2, 2011), at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SHS/pdf/Human-Cloning_IBC18_2011.pdf . See my article where I took 3 of the 6 asexual reproductive techniques for reproductive purposes identified in the UNESCO report and expanded/explained them in detail, with extensive scientific references, at: "Any Human Cell - iPS, Direct Programmed, Embryonic, Fetal or Adult - Can Be Genetically Engineered to Asexually Reproduce New Human Embryos for Purposes of Reproduction ('Infertility')" (November 2011), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_194cellasexuallyreproduce1.html ; see also Irving, "Why Accurate Human Embryology Is Needed To Evaluate Current Trends In Research Involving Stem Cells, Genetic Engineering, Synthetic Biology and Nanotechnology" (November 20, 2012), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_206accuratehumanembryology1.html . See also: Irving, "Notice: Carnegie Stages - Lost, and Found" (Aug. 10, 2012), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_200lostandfound.html . [ Back ]

21  Anthony Gucciardi, "The Looming Future of GMO Technology: Transhumanism, Biocrops, and More" , Natural Society , January 31, 2013, at: http://naturalsociety.com/looming-future-of-gmo-technology-transhumanism-biocrops/ ; also, Gucciardi, "Top Transhumanism CEO Says AI Singularity Will Go 'Very Badly For Humans'" , Natural Society , August 16, 2012, at: http://naturalsociety.com/transhumanism-ceo-ai-singularity-very-badly-humans/ . [ Back ]

22  See, e.g.: Zoltan Istvan, "It's time to consider restricting human breeding" , Wired (UK), August 14, 2014, at: http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-08/14/time-to-restrict-human-breeding ; also, "First transhumanist proposals were based on eugenics" , in "Transhumanism", Wikipedia , as of October 8, 2014, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transhumanism ; also, Wesley J. Smith, "Transhumanism's Eugenics Authoritarianism" , Evolution News and Views , August 15, 2014, at: http://www.evolutionnews.org/2014/08/transhumanisms089001.html ; also, Leslie Fain, "The Surprising Spread and Cultural Impact of Transhumanism" , The Catholic World report, October 3, 2013, at: http://www.catholicworldreport.com/Item/2616/the_surprising_spread_and_cultural_impact_of_transhumanism.aspx . [ Back ]

23  See, e.g., Stuart Newman, "Meiogenics: Synthetic biology meets transhumanism" , Council for Responsible Genetics , as of October 8, 2014, at: http://www.councilforresponsiblegenetics.org/genewatch/GeneWatchPage.aspx?pageId=411 ; Francis Fukuyama, "Transhumanism", Foreign Policy , September 1, 2004, at: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2004/09/01/transhumanism ; also Fukuyama, Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution , Amazon.com, at: http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/0374236437/reasonmagazineA/%20Amazon.com ; also, Laurie Garrett, "Biology's Brave New World: The Promise and Perils of the Synbio Revolution" , Council on Foreign Relations , November/December 2013, at: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140156/laurie-garrett/biologys-brave-new-world ; also, George Church, Regenesis: How Synthetic Biology Will Reinvent Nature and Ourselves , Amazon.com, at: http://www.amazon.com/Regenesis-Synthetic-Biology-ReinventOurselves/dp/0465021751/ref=sr_1_1/189-3118262-9807107?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1388941567&sr=1-1&keywords=0465021751 ; also, Mark D. Oshinskie, "'Reprotech' Ushers in a New Eugenic Age" , Crisis Magazine, January 15, 2014, at: http://www.crisismagazine.com/2014/reprotech-ushers-in-a-new-eugenic-age ; also, Jessica Cussins, "New Ways to Engineer the Germline" , Center for Genetics and Society, BioPolitical Times , December 18, 2013, at: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/article.php?id=7381 . See also "education" of high school and college students globally in how to do synthetic biology in labs, at International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) Foundation (IGEM) , "Dedicated to education and competition, advancement of synthetic biology, and the development", at: http://igem.org/Main_Page ; also synthetically engineered "BioBricks" available for sale to the public online, at: http://biobricks.org/ ; "Synthetic Biology Science Fiction" , Best Science Fiction Books, as of October 8, 2014, at: http://bestsciencefictionbooks.com/synthetic-biology-science-fiction.php . [ Back ]

24  Well, after all, "posthumans" are androgynous. See, eg.: "Effects of human exposure to hormone-disrupting chemicals examined in landmark UN report" , News Release, World Health Organization , February 19, 2013, at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/hormone_disrupting_20130219/en/ ; also, Peter Myers, "372 Gender Bending Chemicals as a cause of Transexuality" , Peter Myers Newsletter, March 12, 2012, at: http://petermyersnewsletters.blogspot.com/2012/03/372-gender-bending-chemicals-as-cause.html ; also, American Chemical Society, "Statement on Testing for Endocrine Disruption" , as of October 8, 2014, at: http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/policy/publicpolicies/promote/endocrinedisruptors.html ; CRC CARE, "Expert warns about toxic chemicals" , Science Alert, February 25, 2014, at: http://www.sciencealert.com.au/news/20132502-24089.html ; also, "Endocrine Disruptor" , Wikipedia, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endocrine_disruptor . See also documentation of "gender-bending" in human embryology and in IVF texts:

-- Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001); also, O'Rahilly and Muller, ibid., (3rd ed., 1994). [Note: O'Rahilly is one of the originators of The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryological Development , and has sat on the international Nomina Embryologica Committee for decades -- DNI]:
O'Rahilly (2001): "Diethylstibestrol (DES) intake by the mother can be followed by postpubertal vaginal adenosis. The risk of vaginal carcinoma, however, is exceedingly small. Exposure of a female conceptus to DES, which can act as an estrogen, can lead to bisexuality. In a male conceptus, the secrtetion of testosterone can be suppressed, resulting in hypomasculinization." (p. 122) ... "The human embryo has DNA info for both sexes : Whether embryos have an XX or an XY chromosomal complement, they are each capable of producing either a female or a male reproductive system ." (p. 317)

-- Geoffrey Sher, Virginia Marriage Davis, Jean Stoess, In Vitro Fertilization: The A.R.T. of Making Babies (New York: Facts On File, 1998):

"Abnormalities in the size and shape of the uterus can also cause infertility problems. Sometimes women develop an abnormally shaped uterus as a result of exposure to certain drugs their mothers took during pregnancy. A classic example of this disorder is the "T-shaped" uterus and significantly smaller uterine cavity often found in women whose mothers took diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy . (p. 32) ... Certain drugs or chemicals in the environment may also inhibit sperm production and function . And as in women, drugs such as DES can also produce abnormalities in the male offspring's reproductive system ." (p. 33)... " Causes of infertility : Once considered largely under control because of the discovery and availability of proper medication, veneral diseases that damage the reproductive system are on the rise again. One of the major causes of this is the increased availability of effective birth control methods, which has undoubtedly contributed to a more open approach toward sexual activity. Consequently, both men and women often have relatively large numbers of sexual partners. The unfortunate result has been a significant increase in sexually transmitted diseases.

" Venereal diseases such as gonorrhea are rampant in the United States. Gonorrhea lodges in the woman's fallopian tubes and often results in a severe illness. Unfortunately, in many cases gonorrhea causes so little physical discomfort that women frequently do not bother to seek treatment. But even a minor gonorrheal infection can damage the fallopian tubes, and many women find out they have had gonorrhea only when they investigate the cause of their infertility . In contrast, gonorrhea in men almost always produced sudden, painful symptoms that usually prompt an immediate visit to the doctor. For this reason, men are less likely to be infertile due to gonorrhea than are women.

"The cure of sexually transmitted diseases is complicated by the emergence of new strains of gonorrhea and other venereal diseases that resist traditional treatment . These bacteria can be combated only by new and expensive antibiotics that often are not readily available. (p. 3)

" Chlamydia, another infection that damages and blocks the fallopian tubes, is more common today than gonorrhea. Clamydia is relatively difficult to diagnose and culture, and it responds well only to specific antibiotics. Past infection is diagnosed through a specific staining procedure of cervical secretions or by blood testing for anti-chlamydia antibodies. The symptoms of chlamydia are very similar to those of gonorrhea .

" Syphilis, too is again becoming widespread in the United States. Syphilis is easily cured in its early stages. In later stages its spread can be halted, but its effects cannot be reversed. " (p. 4) ... "However, there is sometimes a price to pay for having children later on . For example, some disorders that produce infertility tend to appear during the second half of a woman's reproductive life span . Thus, a woman who decides to have children after 35 might find she is infertile because of hormonal problems, a pelvic disease such as endometriosis, or the development of benign fibroid tumors of the uterus . In addition, the ability to ovulate healthy eggs and concurrently generate a hormonal environment that can adequately support a pregnancy becomes increasingly compromised as a woman gets older. Thus, many women who plan to become pregnant later in their reproductive lives find themselves unable to do so." (p. 4)

"Medications and "recreational drugs" are taking their toll. Alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, and other psychotropic drugs can significantly reduce both male and female fertility because they are capable of altering the genetic material of eggs and sperm. However, these substances can potentially have a far more severe and long-lasting effect of the woman than on the man. Because a woman is born with her lifetime quota of eggs already inside her ovaries, unwise use of medications and drugs can damage all the eggs her body will ever produce . In contrast, a man generates a completely new supply of sperm approximately every three months, so damaged sperm are replaced in a short time." (pp. 4-5)

" Organic pelvic disease refers to the presence of structural damage in the woman's pelvis due to trauma, inflammation, tumors, congenital defects, or degenerative disease . The most common cause of infertility in a woman is damaged or blocked fallopian tubes that prevent the egg and sperm from uniting. Sexually transmitted diseases are a major cause of tubal scarring and blockage . In addition, scar tissue that forms after pelvic surgery may also lead to fertility problems ." (pp. 30-31) [ Back ]

25   Global Future 2045 International Congress , 15-16 June 2013, New York, Lincoln Center, "List of Speakers" , at: http://gf2045.com/speakers/#p142 ; also, Russian Transhumanism Party: (home) http://2045.com/ ; (avatars) http://2045.com/manifest/ . See also Dr. George Church, "Brain healthspan extension" , YouTube.com, at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=--TfH82bTi8& . [ Back ]

26  See, e.g., Linda Kimball, "Bus ride from hell" , Renew America , September 4, 2012, at: http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/kimball/120904 ; also, Thomas L. McDonald, "Transhumanism's 'Futurama' Future" , Patheos.com, June 12, 2013, at: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/godandthemachine/2013/06/transhumanisms-futurama-future/ ; also, Drew Zahn, "Mad scientist gets his hands on power of God" , World Net Daily , January 26, 2014, at: http://www.wnd.com/2014/01/mad-scientist-gets-his-hands-on-power-of-god/?cat_orig=diversions . See classic scholarly article on these forms of post-Christian Gnosticism, written by world famous expert Hans Jonas in the Encyclopedia of Philosophy , quoted almost in its entirely in Irving, "GNOSTICISM, the Heretical Gnostic Writings, and 'Judas'" (April 9, 2006), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_121gnosticism1.html . Formally, the Catholic Church condemned the Gnostic teachings in the early days of the Church at the Council of Nicaea (325) ( http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11044a.htm ), as well as New Age Gnosticism more recently [ http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/interelg/documents/rc_pc_interelg_doc_20030203_new-age_en.html#3 ]. By far the best analysis and refutation of Gnosticism is by the Catholic doctor of the Church, St. Ireneus (a115 - 145 A.D.); see his biography at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08130b.htm ; he is especially honored for his refutation of Gnosticism in his 5 books entitled Against the Heresies -- many of which are still available on Amazon.com: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_2/190-6576449-7265760?url=search-alias%3Dstripbooks&field-keywords=%22St.%20Irenaeus%22 . [ Back ]

27  See, e.g., "Prepare for HyperEvolution with Christian Transhumanism" , at: http://www.hyper-evolution.com/ ; also, Micha Redding, "Christianity is Transhumanism" , Christian Transhumanism Organization, as of October 4, 2013, at: http://micahredding.com/blog/2012/04/25/christianity-transhumanism ; "Singularity Religion: Where Love Rules and Ignorance Dies" , at: http://www.technical-jesus.com/ ; also, Mormon Transhumanist Association , as of October 3, 2014, at: http://transfigurism.org/pages/about/ ; Hank Pellissier (H+ Magazine, IEET, BrighterBrains, etc.), "Israel's Value to TransHumanism" , Institute for "Ethics" and Emerging Technologies (IEET) , as of October 4, 2014, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/ieet/more/pellissier20100820 . [ Back ]

28  See also explanation of connection between de Chardin and transhumanism , at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/prisco20090120/ ; and at: http://palaeos.com/posthuman/singularity.html ; also GnosticBooks.com, "Who's Pierre Teilhard de Chardin?" http://www.gnosticbooks.com/chardin/auchardin.htm . De Chardin's "philosophy" is often referred to as pantheistic, Gnostic Mysticism or Gnostic Theism , e.g., on the Gnostic website "Gnostic Christianity" : http://www.darnellworks.com/gnostic/frameset_CH9.htm . Or just Google "Teilhard de Chardin" "Gnostic" and wade through the thousands of usually odd "hits". [ Back ]

29   Teilhard de Chardin was world-renown as one of the archeologists who discovered the ancient bones of the early "Piltdown Man" . This "discovery" was later proven to be one of the greatest frauds of all time: "The story of the Piltdown Man Hoax" , at: http://www.jesus-is-lord.com/piltdownstory.htm . [ Back ]

30  There are extensive resources documenting that de Chardin's "philosophy" was often condemned by the Church until lately; see, e.g.: https://www.google.com/#q=%22Teilhard+de+Chardin%22+%22condemned%22 . E.g., see, "Benedict XVI Praises Super Modernist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin" , at: http://stevensperay.wordpress.com/2010/04/06/benedict-xvi-praises-super-modernist-pierre-teilhard-de-chardin/ : "After Tyrrell, another Jesuit, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, picked up where Tyrrell left off. He was a priest, paleontologist, and geologist. His works promoted macro evolution while pointing to a cosmic Christ. His writings were condemned and denied any imprimaturs. Pope Pius XII condemned many of his ideas in the encyclical Humani Generis. Chardin died in 1955 but his legacy of modernism lives on in the hearts of such men as Benedict XVI who praises him in several works." See also, "Unmasking Chardin's Modernist Manifesto" , at: http://www.salvemariaregina.info/Reference/Chardin.html : "But to true Catholics, he is the very personification of that virulent heresy so evil that it was described by St. Pius X as the "synthesis of all heresies". Indeed, the Holy Father's description of the classic Modernist heretic can be applied to Teilhard de Chardin perhaps more than any disciple of this baneful doctrine". Also, "Words of the Fathers, Part 1: Pierre Teilhard de Chardin" , at: http://veneremurcernui.wordpress.com/2013/04/05/words-of-the-fathers-part-1-pierre-teilhard-de-chardin/ : "Even though de Chardin died long before the Council, there was probably no man more influential upon its direction and outcome than the six-times condemned Jesuit."

The Pontifical Academy of Sciences recently hosted a Vatican conference on de Chardin, " The Emergence of the Human Being " , on April 19-21, 2013: http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/1301848.htm ; also on de Chardin's website: http://teilhard.com/2013/04/26/vatican-conference-on-the-emergence-of-the-human-being/ . Apparently de Chardin's Omega Point is still highly regarded by some in the Vatican: "Orthodoxy of Teilhard de Chardin: (Part V) (Resurrection, Evolution and the Omega Point)" , at: http://teilhard.com/2013/05/28/orthodoxy-of-teilhard-de-chardin-part-v-resurrection-evolution-and-the-omega-point/ . [ Back ]

31  See, DesignerChildren.com , at: http://www.designerchildren.com/pierre-teilhard-de-chardin/ . [ Back ]

32  Most Jesuitical colleges and universities, as well as many secular universities, still teach de Chardin across several academic disciplines within the university. E.g., see also the University of Arizona 's various academic departments incorporating "insights" of Teilhard de Chardin and his interest in "designer children", the "Omega Point", space exploration, today's use of synthetic biology to proceed, etc. E.g. , see the University of Arizona's science department promoting Teilhard de Chardin , at: http://www.arizona.edu/search/google/%22de%20Chardin%22?query=%22de%20Chardin%22&cx=017488205189097806253%3Ah_j_lbd-nb0&cof=FORID%3A11&sitesearch= ; see also the University of Arizona's Center for Consciousness Studies : http://www.consciousness.arizona.edu/abstracts.htm . See, e.g., pg. 48-49, Matthew Houdek's presentation promoting de Chardin, #32 "Consciousness, enlightenment and existential evolution" , in "Philosophy", http://www.consciousness.arizona.edu/documents/FullProgramandAbstractsTSC2011Stockholm.pdf ; Center for Consciousness Studies, at: http://www.consciousness.arizona.edu/index.htm . Note too that it is usually the attribute of "consciousness" that is used by those who are arguing for the "personhood" of non-human animals, robots, cyborgs, Artificial Intelligences, zombies , etc. Needless to say, the University of Arizona also has a high profile in "astrobiology" at its Center for Astrobiology, e.g., Lynn Rothchild, NASA Ames and Brown University, "From Extremophiles to Star Trek, The Use of Synthetic Biology in Astrobiology" , at: http://astrobiology.arizona.edu/node/58 . See also related interest in genetic engineering and synthetic biology, e.g., in their Biomedical Engineering department, Jacqueline Brauneis, "The Application of Liposomes in Synthetic Biology" , at: http://bme.arizona.edu/Seminar/Speakers/Abstracts/Brauneis_04202012.pdf . Again, in another academic field -- Applied Mathematics -- one finds similar interests in synthetic biology: William Ott, "Delay in Gene Regulatory Networks: Mathematics and Synthetic Biology" , at: http://appliedmath.arizona.edu/colloquium/2013-09-27-willaim-ott . [ Back ]

33  See, e.g., Nick Bostrom, "Teilhard de Chardin, S. J. and Transhumanism" , in "A History of Transhumanist Thought" , Journal of Evolution and Technology - Vol. 14 - April 2005, (pg. 8), http://www.jetpress.org/volume14/bostrom.pdf . [ Back ]

34  See, e.g., "Libertarian transhumanism" , Wikipedia, as of October 4, 2014, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libertarian_transhumanism ; also, James Anderson, "Introduction to Libertarian Transhumanism" ("Facilitating the Transition to Post-Humans"), Liberty.me, at: http://transhumanism.liberty.me/ ; also, "Liberal eugenics (and transhumanism)" , Wikipedia, as of October 5, 2014, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_eugenics . [ Back ]

35  See "Basic Ethics Principles: Beneficence" , in The Belmont Report , originally published in 1978, here republished on April 18, 1979, at: http://archive.hhs.gov/ohrp/humansubjects/guidance/belmont.htm#xbenefit . [ Back ]

36  See Institute for "Ethics" and Emerging Technologies (IEET), "Who We Are" , at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/staff ; see also, http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/caplanbot09 ; also, http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/category/C46 ; see also, http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/caplan20140325 ). [ Back ]

37  Jonathan D. Moreno, Mind Wars , at: http://www.jonathandmoreno.com/about/mind-wars/ ; also, Patrick Tucker, "Inside the Military's New Office for Cyborgs" DefenseOne.com, at: http://www.defenseone.com/technology/2014/04/inside-militarys-new-office-cyborgs/81670/?oref=d-channelriver . [ Back ]

38  Patrick Lin and Keith Abney, "Introduction to Astronaut Bioethics" , posted on Slate, article from FutureTense, as of October 8, 2014, at: http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2014/10/astronaut_bioethics_would_it_be_unethical_to_give_birth_on_mars.html ; see also Ethics + Emerging Sciences Group based at California Polytechnic State University, at: http://ethics.calpoly.edu/ . [ Back ]

39  See Singularity University , at: http://singularityu.org/ . [ Back ]

40  See Singularity University Faculty and Founders, at: http://singularityu.org/faculty/ ; http://singularityu.org/community/founders/#founders-2 . [ Back ]

41  See Peter H. Diamandis, "We are evolving into meta-intelligence group-minds" , presentation at Russian Transhumanist Party ("ZOYS"), at: http://2045.com/ , March 4, 2013, at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nV1M5ARfHAc . See also Diamandis' presentation among those at "ZOYS" GF 2045: Global Future 2045, International Congress, "Towards a New Strategy for Human Evolution" , June 15-16, 2013, New York's Lincoln Center, at: http://gf2045.com/ . [ Back ]

42  strong>"Russian Cosmism" , Wikipedia , at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_cosmism ; also, "Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov" , Wikipedia, at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolai_Fyodorovich_Fyodorov ; also, Giulio Prisco (Turing Church), "Russian Cosmism, Transhumanism and Space Exploration" , Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET) , March 17, 2012, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/giulio20120317 . [ Back ]<

43   "Planetary Names: Crater: Fedorov on Moon" , Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature, International Astronomical Union (IAU) Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN), as of October 8, 2014, at: http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/Feature/1928 . [ Back ]

44  Mihail C. Roco and William Sims-Bainbridge, eds., Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science , published 2003 by Kluwer Academic Publishers, at: http://wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC_report.pdf . [ Back ]

45  James J. Hughes, Trinity College, "Human Enhancement and the Emergent Technopolitics of the 21st Century" , #18, pp. 285-308, in Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno Innovations: Converging Technologies in Society , William Sims Bainbridge and Mihail C. Roco (eds.), published by Springer, 2005, at: http://www.wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies/3/NBIC3_report.pdf . See also James Hughes, Citizen Cyborg: Why Democratic Societies Must Respond to the Redesigned Human of the Future , at: http://ieet.org/cybdem/resources.htm . [ Back ]

46  See Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET) , "About", at: http://www.ieet.org/index.php/IEET/about . [ Back ]

47  See, e.g., "Do transhumanists advocate eugenics?" , in "Transhumanist FAQ", Humanity +, at: http://humanityplus.org/philosophy/transhumanist-faq/#answer_32 . [ Back ]

48  See Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET) , "Nick Bostrom", at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/bio/bostrom/ ; see also, "Nick Bostrom Testifies on Cognitive Enhancement for Obama BRAIN Initiative" , IEET , August 22, 2014, at: http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/bostrom20140822 ; also, Carl Shulman and Nick Bostrom, "Embryo selection for cognitive enhancement: curiosity or game-changer" , Future of Humanity Institute , Oxford University (UK), Global Policy Vol 5, No. 1 (2014): 85-92, at: http://www.nickbostrom.com/papers/embryo.pdf . [ Back ]

49  See Bostrom's Home Page, at: http://nickbostrom.com/ ; also, See, e.g., Nick Bostrom, "Teilhard de Chardin, S. J. and Transhumanism" , in "A History of Transhumanist Thought" , Journal of Evolution and Technology - Vol. 14 - April 2005, (pg. 8), http://www.jetpress.org/volume14/bostrom.pdf . [ Back ]

50  See, e.g., Robert Sparrow, "A Not-So-New Eugenics: Harris and Savulescu on Human Enhancement" , Hastings Center Report , January/February 2011, at: http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/HCR/Detail.aspx?id=5072 ; also, Nicholas Agar, "Where to Transhumanism? The Literature Reaches a Critical Mass" , Hastings Center Report 37, no. 3 (2007): 12-17. http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/HCR/Detail.aspx?id=810 ; also, Response by James Hughes and Nick Bostrum, "Human vs. Posthuman" , Hastings Center Report 37, no. 5 (2007): 4-7. http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/HCR/Detail.aspx?id=676 . See over 41 articles in the Hastings Center Report on "Cognitive Enhancement" , at: http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Issues/Default.aspx?v=242&gclid=CIy24-iopcECFbPm7AodUzAAng . Search also on the Hastings Center main website for: "transhumanism", "eugenics", "Arthur Caplan", etc. [ Back ]

51  See Parens and Knowles, "Reprogenetics and Public Policy: Reflections and Recommendations" , The Hastings Center Report , Special Supplement (July/August 2003), at: http://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-108265101/reprogenetics-and-public-policy-reflections-and-recommendations . See also a preview of this article at: http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-108265101/reprogenetics-and-public-policy-reflections-and-recommendations . Download report at: http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/SpecialReports/Detail.aspx?id=1350&terms=reprogenetics+and+%23filename+*.html ; see also a search on the Hastings Center for "reprogenetics", at: http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Search/Results.aspx?searchtext=%22reprogenetics%22 . [ Back ]