Evolution: God's Preferred Pathway For Creating

Anthony Zimmerman
Not published
January 1996
Reproduced with Permission

The subject of evolution did not have atheistic overlays when I heard it from professors at our seminary some fifty plus years ago. Geology teacher Fr. Oehler, SVD, exhibited a large collection of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphosed rocks, sequenced for us a geological clock, located pictures of fossils in place, then went so far as to argue that if evolution did not actually occur, God deliberately deceived us by making it appear so. Our philosopher teacher, Fr. Esser, SVD, who studiously avoided taking sides, let it shine through that he inclined toward the evolution theory. It was challenging to contemplate an orderly cosmos emerging from a dynamic evolutionary process under the guidance of God. Scripture teacher Fr. LeFrois, SVD, instructed us to not look for historical sequence in the six day creation scheme in Genesis; it was a literary device, not to be mistaken with factual history.

It is most unfortunate that atheist science teachers in high schools illogically eclipse God out of their lessons for their captive audiences. That they teach as "unassailable, scientific fact" that life began by chance from "biotic slop" as Stephen F. Smith ruefully recalls (Catholic World Report December 1996). True science uncovers "footprints" where the Creator has trodden. We do well to wrest these "footprints" away from atheists, much as the Israelites recovered the Ark of the Covenant which Philistines had captured.

Teaching of atheism in high school science classes ought to have gone out of style years ago. Geochemist Jim Brooks, a recognized scientist and believer in God, observes that "from the 1920's to the 1940's [science] studies deliberately tried to focus scientific thinking away from religion. Their aim was a completely materialistic, humanistic theory of life, not only of evolution but also of origin. The political and doctrinal purpose of these studies was not a pure scientific search for truth about the origin and development of life, but [was] specifically directed to doing away with creation altogether" Origins of Life, A Lion Book, Tring, Belleville, Sydney, 1985, p.152).

Fashions change, sometimes before the old-fashioned clothes are worn out. Hopefully, hi-jacking science to propagandize atheism is on its way out. "In recent years, the scientific enquiry into the origin of life has been much more objective and of high academic quality...The published work on scientific experiments in biochemistry, biology, geology and astronomy appears to be based on facts and mostly free from both political and religious bias" (Brooks, 153). This is exactly the wrong time for believers in God to bury their talents in fundamentalist holes, instead of putting them to work to increase their capital.

What a waste of time it is to wish God away! Only a fool says in his heart "There is no God." The psalm which exalts: "The heavens show forth the glory of God and the earth declares the work of His hands" gains in splendor when we give the heavens and the earth a dynamic spin in the hands of the Creator God, with evolutionary processes, rather than making God to create nature in a finished status.

It is evident throughout nature that God prefers to allow natural causes to play out their potential, rather than creating finished products. The end product as we perceive it in our niche of time will then embody a history of an evolution whose beginning may have been like a seed before it developed into an oak tree. Inauspicious bulbs pop green sprouts and unfold into lilies. The sun beams into the chlorophyll of cells in leaves which alchemize carbon dioxide and water into food.

If we could sit still in the clouds above we might observe how ingenuously God empowers nature to manufacture snow flakes. We say that God does what we see nature doing, following the lead of writings in the Old Testament. Jeremiah, for example, ridiculed the notion that heavens can shower rain if God does not do the showering: "Are there any among the false gods of the nations that can bring rain? Or can the heavens give showers?" (14:22). What nature does, God does in nature. His preservation of all things in being is quite equal to a continuing creation.

We see in the clouds that God doesn't carve out snowflakes like mothers cut cookies with a metal star, or like a postman cancels stamps with ink pad and hammer. God coaxes each snowflake to grow by itself. He starts it with a microscopic speck of floating silver iodide or other element, and shapes it delicately by attracting to it super-cooled water vapor which snaps into algorithms of aligned crystals.

The vapor doesn't typically just ball itself around the particle in amorphous graupel or blue hail stones. Like kindergarten teachers lining up children neatly to bow "Good morning," like drill sergeants whistling their rockettes into dynamic formations on the football field at half time, God freezes the vapor droplets into preening crystals. Usually hexagonal in shape, some form tiny plates which could sell as the finest China if they would keep. Or He fashions stars of delicate tracery which would make seasoned diamond merchants jealous. God produces them by the millions and billions, none ever alike. Evidently He loves fine handiwork, and plenty of it, and takes all the time in the world to do it. He does not rush because He enjoys His work and likes to stretch it out over time.

That's why God would appear to me to be not working in His usual elegant style, if we imagine that He stamped out a human body with one brief and single thud and put-down. I rather think of Him as fashioning the body by a remote control dynamism which He set into sequential motion long before planet earth congealed and began to cool. For God all time is present simultaneously, but in our time-bound manner of thinking, the seed of the cosmos must have sprouted very long ago. Was it ten billion years ago, or fifteen? Scientists do very rough estimates - by billions of years, not by minutiae of mere millions.

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope spent ten days trained upon a small patch of sky and brought into focus pin-points of light whose beams finally arrived after having been underway for billions of years. Some speculate that they started beaming their way toward us nine billion years ago, when the cosmos was still a "baby," only one billion or so years old (see e.g. Matt Crenson, the Associated Press, Nov. 16, 1996). If the calculations are near the mark, then a galaxy blinked toward Hubble long, long ago; the blink traveled in the direction of Hubble at an unimaginable speed, faster than lightning, at a steady rate of 186,000 miles per second; after so blitzing for nine billion years, it entered Hubble's tube and marked the prepared film to announce its arrival. By now the emitting galaxy is far, far away from the spot of its blinking. It should be way out there in space, having distanced itself ever farther from the primordial axle of the Big Bang. Indeed, we perceive that God hurries not. Lovers want to marry tomorrow, gardeners want their flowers by Christmas and Easter, engineers want their dams ready within ten years. But God? Ten billion years? It blows the mind! We see that God is in no hurry to get things done. He likes to be by Himself in the forever and ever. Hic stat Deus dum volvitur orbs terrarum.

The Big Bang theory postulates that our universe began as a single piece of matter "a sort of giant primeval atom concentrated at a single point in space" (Brooks, 12). This initial plasm then exploded some 10 billion years ago, creating its own space much as a balloon expands as we blow air into it. The stars and galaxies formed, and are forming still now, as concentrated nuclei of the original matter. They are speeding ever farther from each other as they accelerate their movement from the center. The outermost leaders pioneer new frontiers of space. This presents a dynamic cosmos of great interest and power which excites us into utter astonishment. Pope John Paul II confessed fascination:

It is extraordinary to think that, with the help of advanced and sophisticated techniques, you "see" as it were not only the vastness of the universe, but also the unimaginable force and dynamism which pervade it. Even more fascinating is the fact that, since the signals from its farthest reaches are transmitted by light which moves at a finite speed, you can "see" back into the remotest past epochs and describe the processes which are going on today. Well-established experimental results enable you to build a general scheme or model, tracing the whole evolution of the universe from an infinitesimal instant after a starting-point of time to the present, and beyond, into the distant future. Certainly, not all is simple and clear in this general scheme, and a number of questions of the utmost importance engage you, and your colleagues around the world (Message to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, 29 November 1996; L'Osservatore Romano, Weekly Edition in English, 4 December 1996).

God would prefer this dynamic pathway of creation, I like to think, over a static model in which He would plank down the universe as one piece with everything in place and no future exciting action in sight.

I think God would prefer playing billiards rather than pocket pool. When I grew up (in Westphalia, Iowa), we used to bang pool balls - 15 of them - straight into the pockets. But our pastor, Father Hubert Duren, preferred billiards without the pockets. In fact, when he found a capable partner he preferred double or triple bank billiards. Herman Schwarte could give him a good game. The ivory cue ball and two other balls are supposed to bounce off three cushions on the way to hitting each other. The pool shark should calculate the angles, speed and timing to make the balls chase each other against the banks and around the table to kiss each other at the calculated point of rendezvous. That takes some great mental projection to calculate speed, angle and cut. Three-cushion billiards was for grown-ups, not for us kids. We preferred it simple: hit one ball at a time, and bang it into a pocket.

God, I think, would like a good billiard game with our pastor more than just knocking fifteen balls into pockets with us kids. And I like to think that when He created our universe, He used secondary causes - like banking billiard balls off cushions - to achieve remote targets. Thereby He could exercise His wisdom and beatitude to greater satisfaction, and manifest His surpassing glory to make us gasp in astonishment.

God laid His plans for the cosmos in the calm of eternity, calculating with precision the long series of secondary cause sequences from beginning to end. The Big Bang should be the beginning, the end target should be you and I breathing clean atmosphere on the brilliant orb of earth. When He detonated the Big Bang, time and space made their debut. As a row of dominoes falls in a progressing chain - a chain of "dominoes" now chasing cause and effect sequences for ten billion years - the events of the cosmos grew towards our mother earth. God kept His target constantly in view while the sequences clicked: the galaxy of our Milky Way drew out into its spiral shape of a 100 billion stars; in it the nucleus of our sun vacuumed to itself the surrounding dust and gases. It cleared the solar area of all but a few droplets of matter which remained to orbit around the sun - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, and minor asteroids and off-center orbiting comets. That was about 4.6 billion years ago (Brooks, 58). God thereafter concentrated on designing Planet Earth as a suitable habitat for man:

For this is what the Lord says - he who created the heavens, he is God; he who fashioned and made the earth, he founded it; he did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited - he says: "I am the Lord, and there is no other" (Is 45:18).

Earth's distance from the sun was satisfactory, and her 24 hour rotation would prevent freezing on one side, roasting on the other. As it cooled the mantle formed and on top of it a crust of floating plates. The stoked furnace beneath keeps it warm from inside. Volcanoes coughed up gases and vapors, by-products of rock crystallization, through the lithosphere. The effusion provided needed elements for the atmosphere and water for the hydrosphere (oceans).

The God who had been watching the natural forces do their automatic sequences on the construction of the macrosphere waited for the opportune time to create life. At some point He took evolution off automatic pilot to do the life-creating maneuver manually. About 4 billion years ago the earth was still too hot to sustain life. "The oldest-reported compelling evidence for life on Earth comes from stromatolites about 3,400-3,500 million years old from the Warrawoona Group in the Pilbara Block of 'North Pole' Western Australia" (Brooks, 109). Possibly life first appeared 3.8 billion years ago (Brooks, 75).

With the help of living things God now produced an atmosphere. It should contain not only the mixture we need to fuel metabolism, but the endless variety and beauty of changing weather as well: the wind currents for good circulation, the sometimes spectacular drama of thunderstorm and hurricane, the monsoons to irrigate, the lightning to seed fertilizer nitrates into the pouring rain for good crops, the clouds to fleece the winter fields with an immaculate snow-cover. It's consistency should be concentrated enough to compress and dilate to produce waves which our ears translate into sound; the medium should be finely tuned to articulate even the vibrations of musical scores written by Beethoven and Schubert. It should be a blanket to retain warmth for the earth, and at the same time a filter to soften the harsh radiation of the sun.

A proper mixture would be what we now have: 78.084% of the atmosphere is nitrogen an inert body mass, 20.946% is oxygen - enough to sustain fire, not so rich as to explode around the globe - and a flavor of argon @ 0.934%, plus a tincture or whiff of others. Among the latter is a 0.034% minuscular presence of carbon dioxide (3.4 parts per 10,000), and a filament of ozone sunshade sprinkled into the higher atmosphere @ a few parts per 1,000,000. How did God go about producing this atmosphere?

Water vapor is 97% of the volcanic gases "and it is estimated that the quantity of water and gases released over the last 4,000 million years more than accounts for the volume of the oceans and for the nitrogen and other constituents of the present environment" (Brooks, 88). But free oxygen - one fifth of our atmosphere - did not come from volcanoes. Photosynthesis by plants with chlorophyll became the main agency to produce atmospheric free oxygen. The very complicated chemical structure of the chlorophyll molecule in living plants enables them to synthesize carbohydrates such as sugar and starch out of carbon dioxide and water and to release free oxygen into the air as a by-product. As though with a needle powered by a photon of sunlight, chlorophyll stitches together 6 units of H2O (water) for example, and 6 units of CO2 (carbon dioxide) which become by nature's Midas touch a new product C6H12O6 which is sugar. The remaining 6 molecules of O2 (oxygen) the plant then releases into the air. If you calculate the formula you can see that the chlorophyll factory receives 18 molecules of oxygen and uses only 12 of them to manufacture the sugar.

Perhaps you will say that this is a very round-about manner of producing an atmosphere, considering that almighty God could surely do this more simply. The One who said: "Let there by light" and there was light, could also say "Let there by 21% oxygen" and so it would be. More simple, surely, but also less imaginative and interesting. Besides, the Lord had other things in mind: He would cache away a plentiful supply of oil, coal, and combustible gas for us humans when we would arrive.

Most of the free oxygen released into the air would combine again with carbon by combustion and oxidation; but not quite all of it. A fraction of the reduced carbon, before it recaptured its freed oxygen, sank as plant debris into swamps and other to eventually become coal, oil, and gas. "Thus an important mechanism for fixing organic carbon in the Earth's crust and releasing free oxygen into the atmosphere was the accumulation of sedimentary organic matter that escaped oxidation by being deposited. These processes have been active since the first presence of photosynthetic organisms in the early Precambrian period" (Brooks, 89).

Even that is not the end of the benefits accruing from this ingenuous process of sun powered photosynthesis. The sugar and starch manufactured from water and air by the plant can enter the food chain. Animals consume these foods into their bodies, and breathe free oxygen from the air; (fish capture it from water). Oxygen combines with the reduced carbon and produces energy for the animal, for growth, activity, and warmth. The animal then reverses the plant's synthetic action by combusting the food with free oxygen. It then releases the end products of carbon dioxide from lungs or gills, and water as urine, vapor, or perspiration (see Robert Augros and George Stanciu, The New Biology, New Science Library Shambahala, Boston and London, 1987, p.116).

God's sun-powered food production system is very efficient indeed. Not only does He produce food economically, He does it beautifully with elegant designs of flowers, grasses, fruits, bushes and trees. He makes life delightful for animals and humans who savor the delicious table by means of providentially adapted taste buds. He puts brooms and mops into the hands of nature so that she herself disposes neatly of the clutter by orderly organic decay. He scatters about the scent of flowers and greenery to keep things constantly fresh and cheerful. For background music during the banquet He calls upon bees to strum and hum, on birds to trill, on animals to grunt contentment, and on humans to sing His praises.

How long a time did it take for God to insert a satisfactory 21% of free oxygen into the atmosphere? And to stash away enough fuel into the bowels of the earth, all in preparation for our coming? Likely it took place during a span of more than 3.5 billion years. Evidence of plant life and oxygen formation is found in very ancient rock formations. Among other Precambrian rocks (more than 600 million years old) are Banded-Iron Formations (BIF's). In the Yellowknife Supergroup, Slave Province, Canada, the BIF units can be up to 130 feet thick and have been traced for as much as four miles. They are dated at 2,650 million years old. Metasediments in West Greenland "are about 3,800 million years old." They indicate that micro-organisms were active during this very early period. "This conforms early plant evolution. It suggests that not only life itself but also a low level of oxygen-producing photosynthesis was already in existence more than 3,800 million years ago, when the oldest known BIF's were being deposited in South-west Greenland" (Brooks 110). Other Precambrian rocks indicating the presence of very early plant life are found, for example, in Australia and in Swaziland of South Africa (see Brooks, 104-116).

A cross-reference confirming the above approximate date of the origin of life - of that specific kind of life which produces free oxygen via the process of photosynthesis - is the presence of sedimentary organic matter in the lithosphere. Geochemical studies and models have been made that show that sedimentary organic matter, close to eighty percent (by weight) of the current terrestrial volume, already existed over 3,400 million years ago" (Brooks, 92). The carbon compounds which sank into the earth without recapturing the freed oxygen awaited the arrival of humans who would re-combine these elements by using them as fuel for heat and energy. For several billion years, then, the Lord squirreled away coal, oil and gas into the underground, and released free oxygen into the atmosphere. He did it mainly through plants with chlorophyll in their cells. The next time we feel like complaining about the hard work of shoveling coal to heat our stoves in winter, or of filling the gasoline tank, let's stop to think of how long the Lord worked to store up these materials: several billion years! So stop complaining!

How Life Began

Is it possible that the building blocks preparatory for Life just happened to come together by chance? Could the new energy of Life then hitch them together and subsume them into a living and functioning organism? We speak here only of the building blocks which Life would subsume to make its own, not about Life itself.

Proteins cannot be synthesized without DNA, but you cannot make DNA without enzymes, which are proteins. It is a kind o chicken-and-egg situation. Enzymes are complex protein molecules and it is impossible to imagine that such a specific compound could have been produced by chance, even in a period of up to 300 million years. Professor Quastler has calculated that the odds against producing a specific complex molecule on Earth are 1 to 10301 (10 followed by 301 zeros), which is very near to impossible (Brooks, 103).

The professionals, then, hardly think it possible that the blocks needed to support life could have come together by chance in a biotic soup, even if agitated by volcanic and atmospheric action. Let's look again at the chances: 1 chance to 10301 spells out something just short of infinity. So the chances are not very good that a viable molecule assembled by chance. Even an addicted gambler wouldn't waste money on such an infinitesimally small chance.

But let us assume for the sake of discussion without conceding the point, that organically viable life blocks did actually assemble by chance. By that one chance in the zillions as indicated above. The molecule would then still be dead, not alive. Dead chemicals can't bring themselves into life. Corpses have plentiful molecules, but they are dead organic blocks. They will remain dead, no matter how much lightning and volcanic action and elementary movements stimulate them. Life does not come to dead organic matter unless other Life subsumes it, or unless God makes to be living what is dead. God can do so, of course; Christ did it with a call: "`Lazarus, come out.' The dead man came out, his hands and feet bound with bandages, and his face wrapped with a cloth" (Jn 11:43-44). I predict that scientists will never create new life. For life is a substance that no man can create. Only God, not even Angels, can create life.

Life is a new force. It originates by the creative power of God. Lifeless electrostatic and electromagnetic forces bind the elementary particles into 284 distinct atomic species or elements such as hydrogen, helium and up the line of atomic weights and related isotopes. Atoms in turn bind to each other lifelessly into molecules; two atoms of hydrogen bonded with one of oxygen (H2O) is water, sodium bonded to chloride (NaCl) is table salt. They are not alive by virtue of valences and atomic energies. What is the Life Force, then, which harnesses the molecules with their valences together to become a living functional unit? It is a mystery. It is not a force coalescing from lifeless molecules, but a force which coalesces molecules for its own purposes. It is a force which God created originally, and which can reproduce itself by migrating into separate bodies of materials to organize them also into life. As geneticist Jerome Lejeune states:

All the information being written have to be written in the smallest language possible so that they can dictate how to manipulate particle by particle, atom by atom, molecule by molecule. We have to be with life at the real cross between matter, energy and information (Testimony, Blount County, Tennessee, August 10, 1989).

When the time was right, then, when the earth had cooled enough perhaps four billion years ago, God created Life. We may assume that He utilized the available materials and did not create new matter. I think He did not wait for random forces to assemble the first molecule. He assembled that Himself. Why should He wait for a happen-stance mixture to fall together, when His schedule for the appearance of man is already running? The earth should be ready for us before the stars in the sky accelerate beyond the speed of light and disappear from sight.

Having assembled and aligned a long and complicated molecule of DNA, He then miraculously gave it the impetus of Life. There it was! Like a new Big Bang, it would transform our world. The barren earth would receive its dress of greenery, the sterile seas would teem with fish, the sky would become alive with the chatter of birds, the forests and savannahs would become the habitat of myriad animals.

We assume that the first living organism was primitive, adapted to the then existing environment. It would gradually re-adjust the environment to make it hospitable for higher forms of life. The first living being had to survive and reproduce in an atmosphere and/or hydrosphere devoid of free oxygen. The Lord's solution was production of free oxygen by means of photosynthesis. "It is considered that photosynthesis changed the Earth's atmosphere from one based, probably, on nitrogen to our current atmosphere based on oxygen...Until that change happened, the environment to support life as we know it today could not come into existence" (Brooks, 87). For more than three billion years the Lord allowed the sun to energize the chlorophyll factories in living cells to prepare the atmosphere for the sustenance of higher forms of life. The take-off of higher forms of life is usually marked at about 600 million years ago, called the Cambrian period. If the earth took shape together with the sun and planetary system about 4,500 - 4,700 million years ago, and if the earth was too hot for life to exist until 4,000 million years ago, then the Pre-Cambrian time span of atmospheric preparation for advanced forms of plant and animal life would be 3,600 million years. Truly, God is a patient God who hurries not!

Did God create new species one by one, or did He enable the mysterious force of Life to play out natural tendencies by shuffling and re-aligning the algorithms to diversify products of Life, like snow flakes crystallizing into ever new varieties? No amount of shuffling and re-aligning plant life, I believe, can produce sentient animal life. Feeling is something new in the evolving world. God worked that miracle when the time was ripe, and so animal life was introduced into the world where only plant life had existed before. The next miracle was the creation of humans. No peak development of animal life can produce a spiritual and immortal soul. God works the miracle of a new creation each time He lovingly bends down to cooperate with fathers and mothers to create yet another human person.

It appears to me that, once the DNA molecule was assembled and made alive, God may have provided it with tendencies to re-align itself to produce ever more complicated new life forms. Once the integrated circuit of a computer is completed, typists can arrange new directories and directory trees, and specialists can arrange new software for designated purposes.

Robert Augros and George Stanciu find in the fossil record a "pattern of shift from a few species in many groups to many species in fewer groups" a fact which "flatly contradicts Darwinian gradualism" (see The New Biology, p. 169). That is, the number of species within a genera multiply more proliferously than genera multiply, which however proliferate more than families do, and so on up the line of orders, classes, and phyla. "There is a greater intensity of diversification within a progressively smaller confines" (167). Think of a computer with the drives as the phyla, the directories as classes, on down through trees of subdirectories, with the "file" as the species. The two biologists take due note of the fact that the fossil record indicates no gradual change by one species into another (Darwin's Achilles' heel). To explain the hiatus between species, they theorize that within the superfluous DNA of members of a living species, new regulatory gene patterns may be developing over a long period of time which can eventually produce new body plans or species. They explain:

With the new theory, the long stasis of fossil species is easily understood. A species does not itself change into another species. Rather it harbors superfluous genetic material (the "seed" of a new species, as it were) that slowly develops an unexpressed new body plan. During this long developmental period, no morphological change occurs in individuals of the parent species. When a new species finally appears, suddenly and fully formed, its progenitor continues without change. Evolution occurs only in a species' superfluous and unexpressed DNA without changing the individual organism or the extant population. Hence stasis (p.182).

In other words, they locate the Captain's control room of evolution in the organizational dynamisms of DNA, not at all primarily in a tooth and claw battle of survival of the fittest by natural selection. Nature, they find, is characteristically cooperative and accommodating. Species and varieties are found to live with song and joy in capsulized niches, without need of battling with tooth and claw against competitors in their marked out niche.

Cosmology and biology made dynamic with a theory of evolution proclaims the glory of God so much more eloquently than does a "brick and mortar" theory of creation, so it seems to me. Each step of the evolutionary process is a sequence whose causality is found in the previous sequence. It is God's secret how He organized the random particles to always evolve into specified pathways which, in the end, resulted in our extremely well organized, functional, and at the same time beautiful cosmos.

I once asked Professor Lejeune whether God "cheated" by intervening with divine power to manipulate the forces of nature to flow together into our orderly cosmos. What I meant to ask is whether nature's causal sequences are consistent so that scientists can follow them without running into glitches where God corrected natural courses. He said no, God does not cheat. Nature rings like a bell which has no cracks. I think I understood him correctly to say that the indeterminate state of particles permits, without divine intervention but with divine foresight and guidance, that a cause-to-effect sequence can be traced after it has occurred, even though it was indeterminate before the sequence went into effect.

Perhaps we might compare the unified course of evolution, which brought about our ordered and functioning universe, with the functioning of a living body. The body takes into its service lifeless water and air and food of all kinds and bends them all, marvelously, into the service of its own stream of growth and daily living. So also we might picture God as imposing upon the blocks of nature His design which, by evolutionary process of cause and effect and further development, marvelously harnesses natural events and causes and orchestrates them into a consistent, orderly, functioning and delightful design of the evolving cosmos. God is not a "soul" of the cosmos, but He holds it in His hands and designs its working.

Shall we also opine with Thomas that God employed angels, giving them certain powers over matter, to coax our cosmos into the beautiful and functional system which it is? The Angelic Doctor found it worthy of God that He would allow angels to participate with God in the orderly construction and maintenance of the cosmos, and to enjoy the employment of their talents in so doing.

At any rate, it is a joy for us to sing the glories of creation as Daniel and his companions did while walking about in the fiery furnace. God is great, whether He created the cosmos by employing secondary causes such as a Big Bang and DNA dynamisms, or whether He did the same by an immediate creation of new products:

Bless the Lord, all you works of the Lord. Praise and exalt him above all forever.