"Any Human Cell - iPS, Direct Programmed, Embryonic, Fetal or Adult - Can Be Genetically Engineered to Asexually Reproduce New Human Embryos for Purposes of Reproduction ('Infertility')"


1 Winston L. Duke, "The new biology", in Reason,Magazine, "Parahuman Reproduction, Android Cloning, The New Biology, Artificial Synthesis, Genetic Engineering Brain Transfers" (August 1972), pp. 4-11; see analysis by Dianne N. Irving, "Historic roots of human genetic engineering: Reason, Duke, and parahuman reproduction (1972)", July 11, 2004, at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irvi/irvi_34winstonduke.html. [Back]

2 UNESCO, Report of the Eighteenth Session of the International Bioethics Committee (31 May - 2 June 2011), Baku, Azerbaijan; Human Cloning and International Governance (June 2, 2011), at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SHS/pdf/Human-Cloning_IBC18_2011.pdf. [Back]

3 Ibid. [Back]

4 Kathy A. Fackelmann, "Researchers 'clone' human embryos" (October 30, 1993), Sci News.; 144(18):276, at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n18_v144/ai_14289947/; also at PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11659660. [Back]

5 Ibid. [Back]

6 Ibid. [Back]

7 Kathy A. Fackelmann, "University probe faults 'cloning' research; George Washington University board concludes approval for research was attained without full disclosure of facts" (December 17, 1994), Sci News;146(25):406, at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n25_v146/ai_16027235/; also at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11659894. [Back]

8 James A. Thomson, Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor, Sander S. Shapiro, Michelle A. Waknitz, Jennifer J. Swiergiel, Vivienne S. Marshall and Jeffrey M. Jones, "Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Blastocysts" (November 6, 1998), Science, Vol. 282 no. 5391 pp. 1145-1147; doi: 10.1126/science.282.5391.1145; at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/282/5391/1145.full [Back]

9 James A. Thomson, Yu, J. et al., "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells", Science (2007), 318, 1917-1920; at: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/318/5858/1917.abstract. [Back]

10 John D. Gearhart, Michael Shamblott et al, "Derivation of pluripotent stem cells from cultured human primordial germ cells" (November 10, 1998), Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 95(23):13726-13731; PMCID:PMC24887, at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC24887/. [Back]

11 Kazutoshi Takahashi1 and Shinya Yamanaka, "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic and Adult Fibroblast Cultures by Defined Factors" (August 25, 2006), Cell, Volume 126, Issue 4, 663-676, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024, at: http://www.cell.com/retrieve/pii/S0092867406009767. [Back]

12 Kazutoshi Takahashi, Koji Tanabe, Mari Ohnuki, Megumi Narita, Tomoko Ichisaka, Kiichiro Tomoda and Shinya Yamanaka, "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors" (November 30, 2007), Cell, Volume 131, Issue 5, 861-872, doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.019; at: http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674(07)01471-7. [Back]

13 "Genetic Abnormalities Identified in Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines" (January 6, 2011), UC San Diego Health System News, at: http://health.ucsd.edu/news/2011/Pages/01-06-genetic-abnormalities.aspx. See also, Louise Laurent, Igor Ulitsky, Ileana Slavin, Ha Tran et al, "Dynamic Changes in the Copy Number of Pluripotency and Cell Proliferation Genes in Human ESCs and iPSCs during Reprogramming and Time in Culture" (January 7, 2011), Cell Stem Cell, Volume 8, Issue 1, 106-118, at: http://health.ucsd.edu/news/2011/Pages/01-06-genetic-abnormalities.aspx. [Back]

14 Rebecca Robey, "Stem cell setback: Reprogrammed stem cells may induce immune response", BioNews (May 23, 2011), at: http://articles.latimes.com/2011/feb/03/health/la-he-stem-cells-20110203. [Back]

15 "Some stem cells hold on to their past, researchers say" (February 3, 2011), Los Angeles Times, at: http://articles.latimes.com/2011/feb/03/health/la-he-stem-cells-20110203. See also: Charles Q. Choi, "Cell-Off: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Fall Short of Potential Found in Embryonic Version" (February 11, 2010, Scientific American, at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=cell-induced-pluripotent. [Back]

16 Zhao T, Zhang ZN, Rong Z, Xu Y, "Immunogenicity of induced pluripotent stem cells", Nature, May 13, 2011; 474(7350):212-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10135; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21572395. [Back]

17 Bradley J. Fikes, "Stem cell and regenerative medicine's future: Video from Ian Wilmut's speech" (December 5, 2011), North County Times, at: http://www.nctimes.com/blogsnew/business/scitech/stem-cell-and-regenerative-medicine-s-future-video-from-ian/article_6f87eb38-3405-5ffd-9fec-d565555e1eba.html. [Back]

18 Lee ST, Chu K, Jung KH, Song YM, Jeon D, Kim SU, Kim M, Lee SK, Roh JK., "Direct generation of neurosphere-like cells from human dermal fibroblasts" (July 13, 2011), PLoS One:6(7):e21801, PMID 21765916; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=%22direct%20reprograming%22. [Back]

19 "Tetraploid complementation", at: http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/glossary.asp. [Back]

20 A Nagy, J Rossant, R Nagy, W Abramow-Newerly, and J C Roder, "Derivation of completely cell culture-derived mice from early-passage embryonic stem cells" (September 15, 1993), PNAS vol. 90 no. 18 8424-8428, at: http://www.pnas.org/content/90/18/8424.abstract?ijkey=6ab68791138142043b37cf616d8709d6c886b026&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha. [Back]

21 Patrick P. L. Tam and Janet Rossant, "Mouse embryonic chimeras: tools for studying mammalian development" (December 22, 2003), Development 130, 6155-6163; doi: 10.1242/dev.00893; at: http://dev.biologists.org/content/130/25/6155.full. [Back]

22 Lan Kang, Jianle Wang, Yu Zhang, Zhaohui Kou, Shaorong Gao. 2009. iPS cells can support full-term development of tetraploid blastocyst-complemented embryos. Cell Stem Cell, doi 10.1016/j.stem 2009.07.001, PMID 19631602, at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19631602. [Back]

23 Xiao-yang Zhao, Wei Li, Zhuo Lv, Lei Liu et al, "iPS cells produce viable mice through tetraploid complementation" (September 3, 2009) Nature 461, 86-90, doi:10.1038/nature08267; Published online 23 July 2009, at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v461/n7260/abs/nature08267.html. [Back]

24 Ronald Naumann, "Production Of Tetraploid Mouse Embryos By Electrofusion", Biocompare: The Buyer's Guide for Life Scientists, (as of November 2, 2011); at: http://www.biocompare.com/Articles/ApplicationNote/1642/Production-Of-Tetraploid-Mouse-Embryos-By-Electrofusion.html [Back]

25 Roger Bertolotti, "Fully pluripotent iPS cells: Mouse tetraploid complementation, ethical human ES-like cells and reproductive cloning ban", World Scientific Journals (June 19, 2010), Volume: 6, Issue: 1(2011) pp. 21-32; doi 10.1142/S1568558610000148, at: http://www.worldscinet.com/gtr/06/0601/S1568558610000148.html. [Back]

26 Denker, H. W., "Induced pluripotent stem cells: how to deal with the developmental potential", Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;19 Suppl 1:34-7, at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19622249. [Back]

27 Shi V. Liu, Ke-Ming Cui and Wei-Kang Zhang, "Why Do We Need "Fully Pluripotent" iPS Cells?" (August 19, 2009), Top Watch 4(2):29-30, at: http://im1.biz/albums/userpics/10001/TW2009V4N2A2_iPS_full.pdf. [Back]

28 Shi V. Liu, Ke-Ming Cui and Wei-Kang Zhang, "iPS Mice: Passing Acid Test Or Breaking Basic Ethics?" (August 11, 2009), Top Watch 4(2):27-28, at: http://im1.biz/albums/userpics/10001/TW2009V4N2A1_iPS_mice.pdf. [Back]

29 Ibid. [Back]

30 Ibid. [Back]

31 Man Tong, Zhuo Lv, Lei Liu, Hui Zhu, Qin-Yuan Zheng, Xiao-Yang Zhao, Wei Li, Yi-Bo Wu, Hai-Jiang Zhang, Hua-Jun Wu, Zhi-Kun Li, Fanyi Zeng, Liu Wang, Xiu-Jie Wang, Jia-Hao Sha and Qi Zhou, "Mice generated from tetraploid complementation competent iPS cells show similar developmental features as those from ES cells but are prone to tumorigenesis", Cell Research, (August 30, 2011), doi:10.1038/cr.2011.143, at: http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/cr2011143a.html. [Back]

32 Shi-Lung Lin, "Concise Review: Deciphering the Mechanism Behind Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation" (October 25, 2011), Stem Cells, 2011;29:1645-1649, doi: 10.1002/stem.744, at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/stem.744/abstract. [Back]

33 David Cyranoski, "Mice made from induced stem cells; Technical feat shows that the different route to stem cells can indeed make a full mammal body", Nature 460, 560 (July 23, 2009), doi:10.1038/460560a, at: http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090723/full/460560a.htm; see also; Xiao-yang Zhao, Wei Li, Zhuo Lv, Lei Liu, Man Tong1, Tang Hai, Jie Hao, Chang-long Guo, Qing-wen Ma, Liu Wang, Fanyi Zeng & Qi Zhou, "iPS cells produce viable mice through tetraploid complementation", Nature 461, 86-90 (September 3, 2009), doi:10.1038/nature0826, at: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v461/n7260/abs/nature08267.html [Back]

34 Lo B, Parham L, Alvarez-Buylla A, Cedars M, Conklin B, Fisher S, Gates E, Giudice L, Halme DG, Hershon W, Kriegstein A, Kwok PY, Wagner R., "Cloning mice and men: prohibiting the use of iPS cells for human reproductive cloning", Cell Stem Cell. (January 8, 2010); 6(1):16-20, at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20085739. [Back]

35 Andrew Pollack, "Stem cells: Tissue rejection blurs treatment hopes", New York Times (May 14, 2011(, at: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/05/13/MNRH1JG69R.DTL. [Back]

36 The Hinxton Group: An International Consortium on Stem Cells, Ethics and Law (as of Nov. 3, 2011); "The Science, Ethics and Policy Challenges of Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Gametes (PSCDG)"; Listing of references on the science, ethics and same sex topics; Note this list of references ranges only from 2000 - 2008; the field has exploded since then; at: http://www.hinxtongroup.org/au_pscdg_refs.html.

LIST: SCIENCE; PSCDG Review Articles: Aflatoonian B, Moore H., "Germ cells from mouse and human embryonic stem cells", Reproduction 2006; 132(5):699-707; Clark AT, Reijo Pera RA., "Modeling human germ cell development with embryonic stem cells", Regen Med 2006; 1(1):85-93; Daley GQ., "Gametes from embryonic stem cells: a cup half empty or half full?", Science 2007; 316(5823):409-410; Kehler J, Hubner K, Garrett S, Scholer HR, "Generating oocytes and sperm from embryonic stem cells", Semin Reprod Med 2005; 23(3):222-233; Nagano, MC, "in vitro gamete derivation from pluripotent stem cells: progress and perspective", Biol Reprod 2007; 76(4):546-551; PSCDG Articles: Clark AT, Bodnar MS, Fox M et al, "Spontaneous differentiation of germ cells from human embryonic stem cells in vitro", Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13(7):727-739; Drusenheimer N, Wulf G, Nolte J et al, "Putative human male germ cells from bone marrow stem cells", Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 2007; 63:69-76; Dyce PW, Wen L, Li J., "in vitro germline potential of stem cells derived from fetal porcine skin", Nat Cell Biol 2006; 8(4):384-390; Geijsen N, Horoschak M, Kim K, Gribnau J, Eggan K, Daley GQ., "Derivation of embryonic germ cells and male gametes from embryonic stem cells", Nature 2004; 427(6970):148-154; Hubner K, Fuhrmann G, Christenson LK et al, "Derivation of oocytes from mouse embryonic stem cells", Science 2003; 300(5623):1251-1256; Kerkis A, Fonseca SA, Serafim RC et al, "in vitro differentiation of male mouse embryonic stem cells into both presumptive sperm cells and oocytes", Cloning Stem Cells 2007; 9(4):535-548; Lacham-Kaplan O, Chy H, Trounson A., "Testicular cell conditioned medium supports differentiation of embryonic stem cells into ovarian structures containing oocytes", Stem Cells 2006; 24(2):266-273; Nayernia K, Li M, Jaroszynski L et al, "Stem cell based therapeutical approach of male infertility by teratocarcinoma derived germ cells", Hum Mol Genet 2004; 13(14):1451-1460; Nayernia K, Nolte J, Michelmann HW et al, "in vitro-differentiated embryonic stem cells give rise to male gametes that can generate offspring mice", Dev Cell 2006; 11(1):125-132; Nayernia K, Lee JH, Drusenheimer N et al, "Derivation of male germ cells from bone marrow stem cells", Lab Invest 2006; 86(7):654-663; Toyooka Y, Tsunekawa N, Akasu R, Noce T., "Embryonic stem cells can form germ cells in vitro", Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003; 100(20):11457-11462; iPS Cells: Nakagawa M, Koyanagi M, Tanabe K et al, "Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells without Myc from mouse and human fibroblasts", Nat Biotechnol 2008; 26(1):101-106; Park IH, Zhao R, West JA et al, "Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency with defined factors", Nature 2008; 451(7175):141-146; Takahashi K, Yamanaka S., "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors", Cell 2006; 126(4):663-676. Other Science Articles: McLaren A., "Primordial germ cells in the mouse", Dev Biol 2003; 262(1):1-15; Hunt PA, Hassold TJ, "Human female meiosis: what makes a good egg go bad?", Trends Genet 2008; 24(2):86-93; Kono T, Obata Y, Wu Q et al, "Birth of parthenogenetic mice that can develop to adulthood", Nature 2004; 428(6985):860-864; Lawrence LT, Moley KH, "Epigenetics and assisted reproductive technologies: human imprinting syndromes", Semin Reprod Med 2008; 26(2):143-152; Smith KR., "Gene Therapy: The Potential Applicability of Gene Transfer Technology to the Human Germline", Int J Med Sci 2004; 1(2):76-91; Yates F, Daley GQ, "Progress and prospects: gene transfer into embryonic stem cells", Gene Ther 2006; 13(20):1431-1439; van de Lavoir MC, Diamond JH, Leighton PA et al, "Germline transmission of genetically modified primordial germ cells", Nature 2006; 441(7094):766-769; Kazuki Y, Hoshiya H, Kai Y et al, "Correction of a genetic defect in multipotent germline stem cells using a human artificial chromosome", Gene Ther 2008; Hohenstein KA, Pyle AD, Chern JY, Lock LF, Donovan PJ, "Nucleofection Mediates High-efficiency Stable Gene Knockdown and Transgene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells", Stem Cells 2008.

ETHICS: Ethics of PSCDG: Testa G, Harris J, "Ethics and synthetic gametes", Bioethics 2005; 19(2):146-166; Lippman A, Newman SA, Testa G, Harris J., "The Ethics of Deriving Gametes from ES Cells", Science 2005; 307(5709):515c-517c; Master Z., "Embryonic stem-cell gametes: the new frontier in human reproduction", Hum Reprod 2006; 21(4):857-863; McLaren A., "Free-range eggs?", Science 2007; 316(5823):339; Mertes H, Pennings G., "Embryonic stem cell-derived gametes and genetic parenthood: a problematic relationship", Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2008; 17:7-14; Newson AJ, Smajdor AC., "Artificial gametes: new paths to parenthood?", J Med Ethics 2005; 31(3):184-186; Testa G, Harris J., "Genetics. Ethical aspects of ES cell-derived gametes", Science 2004; 305(5691):1719; Whittaker P., "Stem cells to gametes: how far should we go?", Hum Fertil (Camb ) 2007; 10(1):1-5.

SAME SEX PARENTS: Greenfeld DA., "Gay male couples and assisted reproduction: should we assist?", Fertil Steril 2007; 88(1):18-20; Maccallum F, Golombok S., "Children raised in fatherless families from infancy: a follow-up of children of lesbian and single heterosexual mothers at early adolescence", J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2004; 45(8):1407-1419; Tasker F., "Lesbian mothers, gay fathers, and their children: a review", J Dev Behav Pediatr 2005; 26(3):224-240. Other Ethics Articles: Sade RM., "Introduction: religions and cultures of East and west: perspectives on bioethics", J Law Med Ethics 2008; 36(1):7-9; Chan S, Harris J., "The ethics of gene therapy", Curr Opin Mol Ther 2006; 8(5):377-383; Harris J., "Essays on science and society: Intimations of immortality", Science 2000; 288(5463):59; Kass LR., "L'Chaim and its limits: why not immortality?", First Things 2001;(113):17-24; Kimmelman J., "The ethics of human gene transfer", Nat Rev Genet 2008; 9(3):239-244; Mehlman MJ., "Genetic enhancement: plan now to act later", Kennedy Inst Ethics J 2005; 15(1):77-82; Mwase IM, "Genetic enhancement and the fate of the worse off", Kennedy Inst Ethics J 2005; 15(1):83-89; Savulescu J., "Education and debate: Deaf lesbians, 'designer disability,' and the future of medicine", BMJ 2002; 325(7367):771-773. [Back]

37 J. Burley, in Ariff Bongso and Eng Hin Lee, Stem Cells: From Bench to Bedside (London: World Scientific Publishing Company), 2 edition, November 4, 2010; pp. 669-670. [Back]

38 Ibid. [Back]

39 Roger Highfield, "Sperm cells created from female embryo" (January 31, 2008), The Telegraph (UK), at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/3323846/Sperm-cells-created-from-female-embryo.html [Back]


40 Marques-Mari, Lacham-Kaplan, Medranol, Pellicer, and Simon, "Differentiation of germ cells and gametes from stem cells" (January 28, 2009), Hum. Reprod. Update (2009) doi: 10.1093/humupd/dmp001, at: http://humupd.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/01/28/humupd.dmp001.full. [Back]

41 Ibid. [Back]

42 Park, TS., Galic, Z., Lindgren, A., Conway, AE., Van Handel, BJ., Magnusson, M., Richter, L., Teitell, MA., Mikkola, HKA., Lowry, WE., Plath, K., Clark, AT, "Derivation of Primordial germ cells from Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem Cells is significantly improved by co-culture with human fetal gonadal cells" (April 2009), Stem Cells 27(4):783-95; PMID: 19350678; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350678; see also Gkountela, S., Lindgren, A. and Clark, AT. "Pluripotent stem cells in reproductive medicine: Formation of the human germ line in vitro", In Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine From Molecular Embryology to Tissue Engineering, ed. Appasani, K & Appasani, RK, Humana Press, 2010 Page 371; at: http://www.mcdb.ucla.edu/Research/Clark/publications.html; quoted in Lauren Gravitz, "Grow Your Own Eggs and Sperm" (February 2, 2009), Technology Review (MIT), at: http://www.technologyreview.com/printer_friendly_article.aspx?id=22042. [Back]

43 Neri QV, Takeuchi T, Rosenwaks Z, Palermo GD, "Treatment options for impaired spermatogenesis: germ cell transplantation and stem-cell based therapy" (August 2009), Minerva Ginecol. 61(4):253-9, PMID: 19745793; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19745793. [Back]

44 Said Assou, John de Vos, Samir Hamamah, "Generation of artificial gametes from human pluripotent stem cells: Is this possible?" (Jan. - March 2011), MT / médecine de la reproduction, gynécologie et endocrinologie. [Medicine of reproduction, gynecologie and endoctrinology] Volume 13, Number 1, 11-9, janvier-mars 2011, Mini-revues, at: http://www.jle.com/en/revues/medecine/mtg/e-docs/00/04/66/61/resume.phtml. [Back]

45 "Keio approves plan to create sperm, ova using iPS cells" (February 10, 2011), Daily Yomiuri Online, at: http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/features/science/T110209004225.htm. [Back]

46 Yao L, Yu X, Hui N, Liu S., "Application of iPS in assisted reproductive technology: sperm from somatic cells?" (September 2011), Stem Cell Rev. 7(3):714-21, PMID: 21318596, at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21318596. [Back]

47 Brigid O'Connell, "Woman may one day make their own sperm from skin cells" (November 6, 2011), Herald Sun, at: http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/more-news/woman-may-one-day-make-their-own-sperm-from-skin-cells/story-fn7x8me2-1226186635220. [Back]

48 William Kearns, "Early embryos can correct genetic abnormalities during development: findings have significant implications for fertility treatment and stem cell therapies", presented at the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (July 3, 2011), at: http://www.eshre.eu/membership/page.aspx/1354. See also, Amy Maxmen, "Embryos Right Genetic Wrongs? New evidence supports an old idea that embryos with genetic abnormalities can somehow fix themselves early in development" (July 8, 2011), The Scientist, at: http://the-scientist.com/2011/07/08/embryos-right-genetic-wrongs/. [Back]

49 See Dianne N. Irving, "Playing God by manipulating man: Facts and frauds of human cloning" (October 4, 2003), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_22manipulatingman1.html; note the middle sections on "methylation" and "regulation", with extensive direct quotes from the human embryology textbooks. [Back]

50 Geraedts JP, de Wert GM., "Cloning: applications in humans. I. Technical aspects" (May 13, 2000), Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 144(20):921-6; PMID 10827846; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10827846. See also: Geraedts JP, de Wert GM., "Cloning: applications in humans. 1. Technical aspects" (April 2001), Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd, 108(4):145-50; PMID 11383357; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11383357. [Back]

51 Geraedts JP, de Wert GM., "Cloning: applications in humans. II. Ethical considerations " (May 13, 2000), Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 144(20):926-31; PMID 10827847; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10827847. See also: Geraedts JP, de Wert GM., "Cloning: applications in humans. 2. Ethical Considerations" (May 2001), Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd, 108(5):184-9; PMID 11400594; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11400594. [Back]

52 C. Wood, "Embryo splitting: a role in infertility?" (July 17, 2001), Reprod Fertil Dev, 13(1):91-3; PMID 11545169; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11545169. [Back]

53 Van de Velde H, Cauffman G, Tournaye H, Devroey P, Liebaers I, "The four blastomeres of a 4-cell stage human embryo are able to develop individually into blastocysts with inner cell mass and trophectoderm" (epub. May 24, 2008), Hum Reprod. 2008 Aug;23(8):1742-7; PMID 18503052; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18503052?ordinalpos=107&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum. [Back]

54 Ibid. [Back]

55 Illmensee K, Levanduski M, Vidali A, Husami N, Goudas VT, "Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine" (February 11, 2009), Fertil Steril.; PMID 19217091; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217091?ordinalpos=52&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum. [Back]

56 Geens M, Mateizel I, Sermon K, De Rycke M, Spits C, Cauffman G, Devroey P, Tournaye H, Liebaers I, Van de Velde H., "Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres of two 4-cell stage embryos" (July 24, 2009), Hum Reprod; PMID: 19633307; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19633307?ordinalpos=12&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum. [Back]

57 Ibid. [Back]

58 American Medical Association, Code of Medical Ethics, Opinion 2.145 - Pre-embryo Splitting (a summary) (2009), at: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-ethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion2145.shtml. See also analysis of this "opinion" by D. N. Irving, "American Medical Association's "Narrow Definitions", Legal "Re-definitions"... and Reproductive Cloning" (October 9, 2009), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_170ama1.html; see also Irving, "Catholic Bioethicist Calls To End Ban on Reproductive Cloning" (Sept. 25, 2011), at: http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_193reproductivecloning.html. [Back]

59 Karl Illmensee, Ph.D., Mike Levanduski, M.S., Andrea Vidali, M.D., Nabil Husami, M.D., Vasilios T. Goudas, M.D., "Human embryo twinning with applications in reproductive medicine" (January 15, 2010), Fertility and Sterility, Volume 93, Issue 2, Pages 423-427; at: http://www.mendeley.com/research/human-embryo-twinning-with-applications-in-reproductive-medicine/. [Back]

60 Ibid. [Back]

61 Karl Illmensee, Mike Levanduski, Christopher Konialis et al, "Human embryo twinning with proof of monozygocity" (September 2011), Middle East Fertility Society Journal, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 215-219; at: http://www.mefsjournal.org/article/S1110-5690(11)00033-1/abstract. [Back]

62 Beriain I. de Miguel, "The human embryo after Dolly: new practices for new times" (July - December 2008), Rev Derecho Genoma Hum, (29):45-65; PMID 19334406; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19334406?ordinalpos=112&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum. [Back]

63 Ibid. [Back]

64 PBS NewsHour, "Analysis: Multiplying Issues" (January 8, 1998), at: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/jan-june98/cloning_1-8.html [Back]

65 Gina Kolata and Kenneth Chang, "For Clonaid, a Trail of Unproven Claims" (January 1, 2003), New York Times, at: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/01/us/for-clonaid-a-trail-of-unproven-claims.html. See also: "Human cloning firm sets up affiliate in Korea" (July 13, 2002), The Korean Herald, at: http://www.gene.ch/genet/2002/Jul/msg00035.html; and, Rael, Yes to human cloning (2001), Tagman Press, at: http://rael.org/download.php?view.2. Rael states that, "Today's new cloning technology is the first step in the quest for immortality or eternal life. What past religions used to promise only after death in a mythical paradise will soon be a scientific reality here on Earth - this is Rael's challenging conclusion in an incisive and wide-ranging review of how science is about to revolutionize all our lives."; see also Raelian website: http://www.rael.org/home. [Back]

66 Doctor 'implants cloned embryo'" (January 17, 2004), BBC News, at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/3406129.stm; also, "Human clone attempt fails" (February 2, 2004), Mail Online, at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-207372/Human-clone-attempt-fails.html. [Back]

67 Eric J. Lyman, "Italy's Antinori says he's cloned three people" (May 9, 2002), UPI, at: http://www.ericjlyman.com/upiclone.html. [Back]

68 "GRG Editorial: Let's Defuse the Rhetoric by Sharpening Our Vocabulary" (December 2001), Gerontology Research Group News 2001, at: http://www.grg.org/breakingnews2001.htm. [Back]

69 Ibid. [Back]

70 Ibid. [Back]

71 Ibid. [Back]

72 Ibid. [Back]

73 Ibid. [Back]

74 "GRG Editorial: Let's Defuse the Rhetoric by Sharpening Our Vocabulary" (December 2001), Gerontology Research Group News 2001, at: http://www.grg.org/breakingnews2001.htm. [Back]

75 Ibid. [Back]

76 Ibid. [Back]

77 Ibid. [Back]

78 See academic profile at Stanford University School of Medicine, at: http://med.stanford.edu/profiles/Irving_Weissman/;jsessionid=23567DA6BA00BCF89F7302D97F8F4CB3.tc-cap-08. [Back]

79 See, e.g., Michelle L. Brandt, "The great stem cell divide: The science and politics of stem cell research", (Fall 2004), Stanford University School of Medicine, at: http://stanmed.stanford.edu/2004fall/stem-main.html. [Back]

80 Irving Weissman, M.D., "A Message from the Director of the Institute of Cancer/Stem Cell Biology and Medicine at Stanford", in The Stanford Report (Jan. 22, 2003), http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2003/january22/message.html. [Back]

81 Ibid. [Back]

82 "Report of the California Advisory Committee on Human Cloning" (Jan. 11, 2002), Sacramento, CA, at http://scbe.stanford.edu/conference/cloning_cali.pdf. [Back]

83 California Proposition 71, at: http://www.cirm.ca.gov/pdf/prop71.pdf. [Back]

84 Irving Weissman, "Stem cells: Overview" (November 10), the Pontifical Academy of Sciences 2003 Conference on the "400th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Pontifical Academy of Science", at: http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_academies/acdscien/400_ann/program.htm. [Back]

85 "Testimony of Michael D. West, Ph.D., President & CEO, Advanced Cell Technology, Inc." (July 18, 2001), at: http://www.advancedcell.com/testimony-2001-07-18.htm. [Back]

86 Ann A. Kiessling, "What is an Embryo?" (2004), Connecticut Law Review: Volume 36:1051, at: http://www.americanprogress.org/events/2006/10/what_is_an_embryo.pdf. [Back]

87 Ibid.; [Back]

88 Beriain I. de Miguel, "The human embryo after Dolly: new practices for new times" (July - December 2008), Rev Derecho Genoma Hum, (29):45-65; PMID 19334406; at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19334406?ordinalpos=112&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum. [Back]

89 Mihail C. Roco and William Sims Bainbridge (eds.), "Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science" (2003), National Science Foundation, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pg. 9, at: http://wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC_report.pdf. [Back]

90 Ibid., pg. 25 [Back]

91 Ibid., pg. 18. [Back]

92 Ibid., pg. 6. [Back]

93 Ibid., pg. 22. [Back]

94 See, e.g., "Human Embryo Development: Islam", part of the collection "Community Spirituality & Religion", by Islam (accessed December 3, 2011), at: http://www.archive.org/details/HumanEmbryoDevelopmentIslam. See also recent article by Mahdi Esmaeilzadeh (Islamic Republic of Iran), "Holy Quran, New Sciences and Development of Human Embryo" (September 26, 2011), WebmedCentral:Research, "Building Science Together"; Article ID: WMC002260, ISSN 2046-1690, at: http://www.webmedcentral.com/wmcpdf/Article_WMC002260.pdf. Islamic embryology seems to be influenced at least in part by Canadian developmental biologist Keith Moore. Moore is well-known for the textbook that he co-authors with T. V. N. Persaud, e.g., The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented Embryology (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1998). Oddly, in the 5th ed. of this text it was admitted by the authors to have serious systematic scientific errors, including extensive use of the term "pre-embryo". It is to be noted that Moore's earlier textbook was used by McCormick and Grobstein for the "scientific" justification of their false "pre-embryo". Moore also publishes a similar human embryology textbook written for Islamic audiences, with co-author Azzindani, Abdul Majeed A., The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented Embryology with ISLAMIC ADDITIONS [emphasis in original], 3rd Ed., Dar Al-Qiblah and W.B. Saunders. [This textbook is still available on-line at: http://www.onlineislamicstore.com/b6147.html.] See also videos on YouTube showing Moore presenting "embryology" at Islamic conferences in Saudi Arabia, embracing "Islamic embryology" as found in the Qur'an: (1) "Embryology, Prof. Keith L. Moore, Part 1" at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tx434UE3SYw&feature=related; (2) "Embryology, Prof. Keith L. Moore, Part 2", at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fKGurZJO3hM. Moore is also quoted in the Mahdi Esmaeilzadeh article just cited above, as well as in the video, "The Video Clips of the Scientists' Comments on the Quran; Professor Keith L. Moore, Comment 2," available from http://www.islam-guide.com/truth.htm; Moore is also quoted in "The Quran on Human Embryonic Development," available from http://www.islam-guide.com/frm-ch1-1-a.htm. See also Moore's suggestion to replace the Carnegie Stages: "…it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Quran and Sunnah...," in "The Qur'an and Modern Science: Extracts from the video 'The Truth', http://www.islam101.com/science/quran_sc_tv.html; also, at http://www.scotland.com/forums/showthread.php3?threadid=18165. Moore is most likely influenced by the French physician who originated "Bucailleism". "Bucailleism" is the belief that "the Qur'an prophesied the Big Bang theory, space travel and other contemporary scientific breakthroughs; see, e.g., Maurice Bucaille, "The Qur'an and Modern Science", at: http://www.sultan.org/articles/QScience.html. [Back]

95 UNESCO, Report of the Eighteenth Session of the International Bioethics Committee (31 May - 2 June 2011), Baku, Azerbaijan; Human Cloning and International Governance (June 2, 2011), at: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/SHS/pdf/Human-Cloning_IBC18_2011.pdf. [Back]

96 Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001), pg. 3; also, O'Rahilly and Muller, ibid., (3rd ed., 1994), p. 3. As Swiss human embryologist O'Rahilly put it: "In preparing this book, the authors have made full use of the [Carnegie Embryological] Collection and of the various published studies, whether by themselves or by others, based on what George W. Corner felicitously termed that "Bureau of Standards."... Serious work in human embryology now depends on staging and the internationally accepted system of Carnegie embryonic stages (a term introduced by the senior author) has been adopted throughout." (Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001), p. ix). To see the website for the international nomenclature committee on human embryology (FIPAT), go online to their website for the Terminologia Embryologica, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/. [Back]

97 Carnegie Stage One (phases a, b, and c) at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/stage1.pdf. [Back]

98 See all 23 Stages of the early developing human embryo at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/Select_Stage_and_Lab_Manual.htm. [Back]

99 Terminologia Embryologica online go to FIPAT, at: http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/. [Back]

100 "Virtual Human Embryo", developed by human embryologist Dr. Ray Gasser (a member of the international nomenclature committee), housed at the Cell Biology and Anatomy Department, Louisiana State University's Health Sciences Center, at: http://virtualhumanembryo.lsuhsc.edu/. [Back]

101 iPhone apps are even available for the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, entitled "Embryo", National Library of Medicine, at: http://apps.usa.gov/embryo/. [Back]

102 The Endowment for Human Development, "The Virtual Human Embryo: Digitally Reproduced Embryonic Morphology" (Nov. 23, 2011), DVD available, at: http://www.ehd.org/virtual-human-embryo/. [Back]

103 Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001; also, O'Rahilly and Muller, ibid., (3rd ed., 1994). [Back]

104 Lee Silver, Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World (New York: Avon Books, 1997), p. 39. [Back]

105 Cited in Diane Gianelli, "Congress Weighs Ban on Cloning," American Medical News, February 23, 1998. [Back]

106 O'Rahilly and Muller 2001, p. 16. [Back]

107 Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, Stage One, at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/stage1.pdf. [Back]

108 See the full chart of the Carnegie Stages at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/Stages_Table.htm; individual in-depth scientific details of each Stage can be found at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/Select_Stage_and_Lab_Manual.htm. To access even more scientific details, click into the "text book" at the bottom left of each page. [Back]

109 Carnegie Stages of Early Human Embryonic Development, Stage One, at: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/stage1.pdf. [Back]

110 The Nuremberg Code, at: http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/nuremberg.html. [Back]

111 The Declaration of Helsinki, 59th World Medical Association General Assembly, Seoul, Korea, October 2008, at: http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html. [Back]

1, 2, 3, 4, 5,