The Pill: How it works and fails.

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1.   Graham A, Grieve F, Davie, Glasier A. Lancet. 1995;346:1430 (Letter). [Back]

2.   Choo V. EU agency asks for more data on oral contraceptives. Lancet. 1995;346:1219.(Letter). [Back]

3.   Thomas SHL. Mortality from venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in young adults in England and Wales. The Lancet.1996;348:#9024. [Back]

4.   Australian Prescription Products Guide (APPG) 25th Ed 1996 p.1531. [Back]

5.   Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Pergammon Press.1990; 8th Ed p.1405. [Back]

6.   Micromedex (Clinical Computerised Information System) Vol 86 Triquilar ED monograph. 1995. [Back]

7.   Van der Vange, N. Ovarian activity during low dose oral contraceptives. In: Chamberlain G, ed. Contemporary Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Butterworths, London. 1988 p.323. [Back]

8.   Rahwan R, Prof. Pharmacology & Toxicology. Ohio State University. Chemical Contraceptives, Interceptives and Abortifacients. 1998 p.9. [Back]

9.   MicroMedex, Depo-Provera Monograph, 1995. Vol 85. [Back]

10.   Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Pergammon Press. 8th Ed p.1405 "It seems unlikely that implantation would be possible in the altered endometrium developed under the influence of most of the suppressants [of ovulation]." [Back]

11.   Somkuti SG, Sun JS, Yowell CW, Fritz MA, Lessey BA. The effect of oral contraceptive pills on markers of endometrial receptivity Fertil Sterility. 1996;65. p.484. [Back]

12.   Somkuti SG. op.cit p.487. [Back]

13.   Rahwan , op.cit., pp.7-8. [Back]

14.   See AMA: Drug Evaluation Subscriptions, AMA Dept of Drugs, Chicago, IL. 1991. and Balin H, Newton RE, Howtz AE et al. Pharmacophysiologic and clinical aspects of oral contraceptives. Semin. Drug Treatment. 1973;3:121-142. and Morris JM. Mechanisms involved in progesterone contraception and oestrogen interception. Am J Ob Gynae. 1973;117:167. In MicroMedex Vol 87.1996. [Back]

15.   Somkuti, loc.cit., [Back]

16.   Rahwan, Chemical Contraceptives, Interceptives and Abortifacients. op.cit., pp.8 &10. [Back]

17.   Van der Vange N. op. cit. p. 323. [Back]

18.   Grimes DA, Godwin AJ, et al. Ovulation and follicular development associated with the low-dose oral contraceptive: a randomised controlled trial. Obste Gynae 1994;83(1) 29-34. [Back]

19.   Rahwan, Chemical Contraceptives, Interceptives and Abortifacients. op.cit., pp.7-8. [Back]

20.   Vessey MP, Lawless M, Yeates D, McPherson K. Progestogen-only contraception. Findings in a large prospective study with special reference to effectiveness. Br J Fam Planning. 1985;10:p.119. [Back]

21.   Weisberg E. Oral Contraceptives- fine tuning clinical use. Patient Management July 1988.p.33. [Back]

22.   Sparrow MJ. Pregnancies in reliable pill takers. New Zealand Medical Journal. 1989:102 p.576. [Back]

23.   That pregnancy does occur on the pill implicitly means that the endometrium is not always adversely altered. [Back]

24.   Vessey, Br J Fam Planning.1985. op.cit., p.119. Table 4. [Back]

25.   Rahwan, Chemical Contraceptives, Interceptives and Abortifacients., op.cit.,pp.8-9. [Back]

26.  Ibid., p.17. [Back]

27.   Sweet M., The Contraceptive Revolution - still a bitter pill. The Sydney Morning Herald. March 13, 1995. [Back]

28.   Norinyl-1 patient information leaflet. Approved by the Australian Department of Health on 23rd January,1998. [Back]

29.   Sparrow, loc.cit. [Back]

30.   Merck Manual 15th Ed, Robert Berkow (Editor) Merck Research Laboratories, Merck & Co., Inc. Rahway, N.J. 1987 p.1736. [Back]

31.   Sparrow, loc.cit., [Back]

32.   Baciewicz AM. Oral Contraceptive Drug Interactions (Review). Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. 1985; 7:26-35. Raven Press. New York. [Back]

33.   appendix 2. A Consumer's Guide to the Pill and Other Drugs. TGB Books (03 9326 5757). [Back]

34.   Van der Vange, loc.cit., [Back]

35.   Ibid, pp.315-326. [Back]

36.   Grimes, loc.cit. [Back]

37.   Rahwan, Prof. R.,( Letter), Lancet .1995;346:252. This definition has been accepted by the US Supreme Court (Webster vs Reproductive Services, July 3, 1989). [Back]

38.   Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Dictionary 3rd Edition 1990 N. Darlene Como (Ed) p.610. [Back]

39.   Ibid, p.954. [Back]

40.   Dwyer, Prof. J., The Courier. (The Inner Western Suburbs Newspaper, Publishing Address 170 Bourke Rd Alexandria 2015 NSW Aust) 2nd January 1996. [Back]

41.   Llewellyn-Jones D. Everywomen. 2nd Edition 1978. Faber and Faber, London. p.8. [Back]

42.   Mosby's Medical, Allied, Nursing, & allied Health Dictionary. 5th Edition, 1998. p.301. [Back]

43.   Rahwan, Prof. R, Contraceptives, Interceptives and Abortifacients. 1995. p.7. [Back]

44.   Mosby's Medical, Allied, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary. 5th Edition,1998. [Back]

45.   Butterworths Medical Dictionary 2nd Ed 1978 MacDonald Critchley (ed). [Back]

46.   Gould Medical Dictionary 4th Ed.1979. McGraw-Hill Book Co. [Back]

47.   Stedman's Medical Dictionary 26th Ed 1995. Williams & Wilkins (Pub). [Back]

48.   Harrup's Dictionary of Medicine and Health 1st Ed. 1988. London. [Back]

49.   Mellon's Illustrated Medical Dictionary 3rd Ed (1993) New York. [Back]

50.   Oxford Concise Medical Dictionary 4th Ed 1994. [Back]

51.   Mosby's Medical, Allied, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary. 5th Edition, 1998. [Back]

52.   Pearce's Medical and Nursing Dictionary and Encyclopedia. 15th Ed. 1983. p.99. Faber & Faber. "Conception - the union of the male and female reproductive elements, i.e. the ovum and the spermatozoon." [Back]

53.   Guillebaud J. Time for emergency contraception with levonorgestrel alone. Lancet. 1998;385:416. [Back]

54.   Grimes DA. Emergency contraception - expanding opportunities for primary prevention. NEJM. 1997; 337:1078-1079. [Back]

55.   Glasier A. Emergency postcoital contraception. NEJM. 1997;337:1058-1064. [Back]

56.   Sato S, Kume K et al. Up-regulating of the intracellular Ca 2+ signaling and mRNA expression of platelet-activating factor receptor by estradiol in human endometrial cells. Adv Exo Med Biol.1997;416:95-100. [Back]

57.   Ahmed A, Dearn S et al. Localization, quantification, and activation of platelet-activating factor receptor in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle: PAF stimulates NO, VEGF, and FAK. The FASEB Journal. 1998;12:831-843. [Back]

58.   Sawai K et al. Human decidual cell biosynthesis of leukemia inhibitor factor: regulation by decidual cytokines and steroid hormones.Biol Reprod. 1997;56:,5,1274-80. [Back]

59.   Simon C, Gimeno MJ et al. Embryonic regulation of integrins beta 3, alpha 4, and alpha 1 in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:8,2607-16. [Back]

60.   Simon C et al. Increasing uterine receptivity by decreasing estradiol levels during preimplantation period in high responders with the use of a follicle-stimulating hormone step-down regimen.Fert Ster. 1998;70,2: 234-238. [Back]

61.   Gidley-Baird AA, O'Neill C et al. Failure of implantation in human in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer patients: the effects of altered progesterone/estrogen ratios in humans and mice. Fert Steril. 1986;45:1,69-74. [Back]

62.   Faundes A et al. Endometrial thickness and oestradiol concentration in women with bleeding complaints during use of Norplant implants. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:1,188-91. [Back]

63.   Issacs JD Jr et al. Endometrial thickness is a valid monitoring parameter in cycles of ovulation induction with menotropins alone. Fert Steril. 1996;65:2,262-6. [Back]

64.   Simon C, Gimeno MJ et al. Embryonic regulation of integrins beta 3, alpha 4, and alpha 1 in human endometrial epithelial cells in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997;82:8,2607-16. [Back]

65.   Lessey BA, Ilesanmi AO et al. Luminal and glandular endometrial epithelium express integrins differentially throughout the menstrual cycle: implications for implantation, contraception, and infertility. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1996;35:3,195-204. [Back]

66.   Yoshimura Y. Integrins:expression, modulation, and signaling in fertilization, embryogenis and implantation. Keio J Med. 1997;46:1,16-24. [Back]

67.   Widra EA et al. Modulation of implantation-associated integrin expression but not uteroglobin by steroid hormones in an endometrial cell line.Mol Hum Reprod. 1997;3:7,563-8. [Back]

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