"FRC's Brochure on Human Cloning at the U.N.: Serious Flaws, Dangerous Consequences"


1 Robert P. Lanza, Arthur L. Caplan, Lee M. Silver, Jose B. Cibelli, Michael D. West, Ronald M. Green, "The ethical validity of using nuclear transfer in human transplantation," Journal of the American Medical Association 284 (2000) 3175Ð3179. [Back]

2 R.Y.L. Tsai, et al., "Plasticity, niches, and the use of stem cells," Developmental Cell 2 (2002) 707Ð712. [Back]

3 M. Cavazzana-Calvo, et al., "Gene therapy of human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) - X1 disease"; Science 288 (2000) 669Ð672. [Back]

4 David Prentice, "Adult Stem Cells." Appendix K in Monitoring Stem Cell Research: A Report of the President's Council on Bioethics, 309Ð346, (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2004). Available at http://bioethics.gov/reports/stemcell/appendix_k.html [Back]

5 Testimony of David Prentice, before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, Sept. 29, 2004; see also National Marrow Donor Program, http://www.marrow.org [Back]

6 Testimony of Dennis Turner, Laura Dominguez, and Susan Fajt, before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space, July 14, 2004. [Back]

7 David Prentice, Stem Cells and Cloning, 1st edition, Michael A. Palladino, series ed., (San Francisco: Pearson Education/Benjamin-Cummings, 2002); see also, Mombaerts P, "Therapeutic cloning in the mouse," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100, Sept. 30, 2003: 11924Ð5. [Back]

8 Michael Vincent, "Korean stem cell research labeled recipe for cloning," Australian Broadcasting Corporation Online, Feb. 13, 2004. [Back]

9 Ibid 1. [Back]

10 From the third meeting of the President's Council on Bioethics, April 13, 2002, available at: http://www.bioethics.gov/meetings/200202/0213.html. [Back]

11 Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 1986): 46. [Back]

12 Ibid., 54. [Back]

13 Ibid., 54. [Back]

14 George J. Annas and Michael A. Grodin, The Nazi Doctors and The Nuremberg Code (Oxford University Press, 1992): 22. [Back]

15 Nuremberg Code, Article 5. [Back]

16 The cloning procedure supplies the oocyte with a complete set of chromosomes, all of which are contained in the nucleus which is transferred into the denucleated oocyte. With sexual reproduction, half of the chromosomes are supplied by the sperm and half by the oocyte. [Back]

17 Dr. John Collins Harvey, "Distinctly Human: The When, Where, and How of Life's Beginnings," Insight 244 (Washington, D.C.: Family Research Council, 2002): 6. [Back]

18 In Robert P. George, "The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning," At the Podium 87 (Washington, D.C.: Family Research Council, 2002). Professor George offers a cogent critique of all arguments against the personhood of the embryo, including the view that the human embryo prior to possessing a brain is not a person. [Back]

19 Paul Ramsey, Fabricated Man: The Ethics of Genetic Control (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970): 11. [Back]

20 See, e.g., Mona Charen, "Another Kind of Adoption," Jewish World Review, Feb. 28, 2001, available at: http:www.jewishworldreview.com/colscharen022801.asp [Back]

21 Available at: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/russolzhenitsyn.htm. [Back]


22 See Family Research Council's announcement at: http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=PR04J06. See their human cloning brochure, Human Cloning: The Abuse of Science, at: http://www.frc.org/index.cfm?i=BC04J01&f=WU04J17&t=e. [Back]

23 Human Cloning: The Abuse of Science, at: http://www.frc.org/index.cfm?i=BC04J01&f=WU04J17&t=e. [Back]

24  The Carnegie Stages of Early Human Development are the basis for the Nomina Embryologica which was part of the larger Nomina Anatomica for decades until 1989. In 1999 the name was changed by the International Associations of Anatomists to Terminologia Embryologica and Terminologia Anatomica, which was published in 1999 by the IFAA and is available for sale in book or CD-Rom format at: http://www.thieme.com/SID2194056226451/productsubpages/pubid-1163116455.html. For on-line access to information about the international Nomina Embryologica Committee and the Carnegie Stages of Early Human Development, see U.S. national website at the National Museum of Health and Medicine, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology: http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/, Human Developmental Anatomy Center; http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/index.htm, the Carnegie Collection of Embryology; http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/hdac/Carnegie_collection.htm.

The scientific quotes on human embryology herein are taken directly from the following internationally recognized human embryology textbooks in concert with the Carnegie Stages and the international nomenclature on human embryology: Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001): "In preparing this book, the authors have made full use of the [Carnegie Embryological] Collection and of the various published studies, whether by themselves or by others, based on what George W. Corner felicitously termed that 'Bureau of Standards.'" ... "Serious work in human embryology now depends on staging and the internationally accepted system of Carnegie embryonic stages (a term introduced by the senior author) has been adopted throughout. ... A scheme of embryonic stages can be found on the inside front cover of this book. These developmental stages are indicated by superscripts throughout this book, thereby avoiding interruptions in the flow of the text." (p. ix)

Ibid, O'Rahilly and Muller (1994): "Wilhelm His, Senior (1831-1904), the founder of human embryology [Fig. 1-1]. ... [H]uman embryology is scarcely more than one hundred years old. The first to study the human embryo systematically was Wilhelm His, Senior, who established the basis of reconstruction, i.e., the assembling of three-dimensional form from microscopic sections. His, who has been called the 'Vesalium of human embryology,' published his three-volume masterpiece Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen in 1880-85 [His, Vogel, Leipzig]. In it the human embryo was studied as a whole for the first time. ... A detailed Handbook of Human Embryology by Keibel and Mall appeared in 1910-12. Franklin P. Mall, who studied under His, established the Carnegie Embryological Collection in Baltimore and was the first person to stage human embryos (in 1914). Mall's collection soon became the most important repository of human embryos in the world and has ever since served as a 'Bureau of Standards'. Mall's successor, George L. Streeter, laid down the basis of the currently used staging system for human embryos (1942-48), which was completed by O'Rahilly (1973) and revised by O'Rahilly and Muller (1987)." (p. 3) For more historical information on the development of these international standards, see, e.g., article on Wilhelm Hiss, at: http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/2606.html.

See also human embryology textbooks by: Keith Moore and T. V. N. Persaud, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed. only) (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1998; see also 7th ed.): "Schleiden and Schwann were responsible for great advances being made in embryology when they formulated the cell theory in 1839. This concept stated that the body is composed of cells and cell products. The cell theory soon led to the realization that the embryo developed from a single cell, the zygote, which underwent many cell divisions as the tissues and organs formed." (p. 12) See also: Bruce M. Carlson, Human Embryology and Developmental Biology (St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1994); also, Carlson, ibid., (2nd ed., 1999); William Larsen, Human Embryology (2nd ed.) (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1997); also, Larsen, Essentials of Human Embryology (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1998). [Back]

25  E.g., In sexual human reproduction: "Although life is a continuous process, fertilization ... is a critical landmark because, under ordinary circumstances, a new, genetically distinct human organism is formed when the chromosomes of the male and female pronuclei blend in the oocyte." [Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Muller, Human Embryology & Teratology (New York: Wiley-Liss, 2001), p. 31] (emphases added). In a-sexual human reproduction: "A form of animal cloning can also occur as a result of artificial manipulation to bring about a type of asexual human reproduction ... Wilmut et al (1997) reported successful cloning of an adult sheep. For the first time an adult nucleus had been reprogrammed to become totipotent once more, just like the genetic material in the fertilized oocyte from which the donor cell had ultimately developed." [Tom Strachan and Andrew P. Read, Human Molecular Genetics 2 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999), pp. 508-509]. (emphases added) And of course, a "fertilized oocyte" IS a new single-cell human being, a single-cell embryo/organism: "The expression 'fertilized ovum' refers to a secondary oocyte that is impregnated by a sperm; when fertilization is complete, the oocyte becomes a zygote." (p. 2), ... Human development begins when an oocyte is fertilized." [Moore and Persaud (1998), p. 34]. "The zygote is characteristic of the last phase of fertilization and is a unicellular embryo." [O'Rahilly and Muller (2001), p. 19]. "In this text, we begin our description of the developing human with the formation and differentiation of the male and female sex cells or gametes, which will unite at fertilization to initiate the embryonic development of a new individual. [Larsen (1997), p. 17]. (emphases added)

See also (emphases added): Jonathan Van Blerkom, human embryologist at University of Colorado, in American Medical News, Feb. 23, 1998, p. 32; also,IanWilmut: "The majority of reconstructed embryos were cultured in ligated oviducts of sheep... Most embryos that developed to morula or blastocyst after 6 days of culture were transferred to recipients and allowed to develop to term," etc. [I. Wilmut et al., "Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells," 385 Nature 810-813 (Feb. 27, 1997)], and also, "One potential use for this technique would be to take cells -- skin cells, for example -- from a human patient who had a genetic disease... You take these and get them back to the beginning of their life by nuclear transfer into an oocyte to produce a new embryo. From that new embryo, you would be able to obtain relatively simple, undifferentiated cells, which would retain the ability to colonize the tissues of the patient." - Ian Wilmut, in 7 Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 138 (Spring 1988).

On being asked in an interview: "Do you think that society should allow cloning of human embryos because of the great promise of medical benefit?"]: "Yes. Cloning at the embryo stage -- to achieve cell dedifferentiation -- could provide benefits that are wide ranging..." - Keith Campbell, head of embryology at PPL Therapeutics and co-author of Dr. Wilmut's landmark paper, in 7 Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 139 (Spring 1988).

Lee M. Silver, professor of molecular biology and evolutionary biology at Princeton University, "Yet there is nothing synthetic about the cells used in cloning... The newly created embryo can only develop inside the womb of a woman in the same way that all embryos and fetuses develop. Cloned children will be full-fledged human beings, indistinguishable in biological terms from all other members of the species. Thus, the notion of a soulless clone has no basis in reality.", in Remaking Eden: Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World(Avon Books 1997), p. 107.

"This experiment [producing Dolly] demonstrated that, when appropriately manipulated and placed in the correct environment, the genetic material of somatic cells can regain its full potential to direct embryonic, fetal, and subsequent development." - National Institutes of Health, Background Paper: Cloning: Present uses and Promises, Jan. 29, 1998, p. 3.

"The Commission began its discussions fully recognizing that any effort in humans to transfer a somatic cell nucleus into an enucleated egg involves the creation of an embryo, with the apparent potential to be implanted in utero and developed to term." - Cloning Human Beings: Report and Recommendations of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (Rockville, MD: June 1997), p. 3. [Back]

26 O'Rahilly and Muller (2001): "Gametogenesis is the production of germ cells (gametes), i.e., spermatozoa and oocytes. ... The gametes are believed to arise by successive divisions from a distinct line of cells (the germ plasm), and the cells that are not directly concerned with gametogenesis are termed somatic. ... Diploid refers to the presence of two sets of homologous chromosomes: 23 pairs, making a total of 46. This is characteristic of somatic and primordial germ cells alike." (p. 19) Strachan and Read (1999): "A subset of the diploid body cells constitute the germ line. These give rise to specialized diploid cells in the ovary and testis ... The other cells of the body, apart from the germ line, are known as somatic cells ... most somatic cells are diploid ... " (p. 28) Larsen (1998): "Like all normal somatic (i.e., non-germ cells), the primordial germ cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, or a total of 46." (p. 4) (emphases added) [Back]

27  For an extensive 31-page summary of selected bibliography of recent research studies on PubMed using such human materials for cloning and genetic engineering, see Irving, "Scientific References, Human Genetic Engineering (Including Cloning): Artificial Human Embryos, Oocytes, Sperms, Chromosomes and Genes" (May 25, 2004), at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_25scientificrefer1.html].

For those who are still unaware, there are already National Institutes of Nanotechnology in over 40 different countries, including the United States. Such cloning, using "artificially constructed" chromosomes, sperms, oocytes, and embryos, is included in the current New Zealand bill on human artificial reproductive technologies (HART Bill): "gamete means -- (a) an egg or a sperm, whether mature or not; or (b) any other cell (whether naturally occurring or artificially formed or modified) that --- (i) contains only 1 copy of all or most chromosomes; and (ii) is capable of being used for reproductive purposes." http://www.justice.govt.nz/pubs/other/pamphlets/2003/hart/Supp_order_paper.pdf. (emphasis added)

The term "reprogenetics" is coined in a recent "Special Supplement" of The Hastings Center Report (July/August 2003) at: (http://www.thehastingscenter.org/news/features/repro%20supplement.pdf), the first sentence of which refers to reprogenetics as "one big embryo experiment". The term refers collectively to the converging of several scientific technologies, especially multiple artificial human reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF and cloning) and human genetics research - other wise known as eugenics. The term is similar to such others as "trans-humanism", "post-humanism", "futurism", etc. - i.e., the remaking of human nature by the use of experimental reproductive and genetic techniques. Such are the stated goals of "nano/bio/info/cogno", supported by this government and many internationally popular "futuristic" programs, e.g., see Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance (National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Dept. of Commerce, June 2002); you can find the report at: httop://itri.loyola.edu/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC pre publication.pdf (or at http://www.wtec.org/reports.htm). See also, for example, the current New Zealand cloning bill, which defines a "gamete" as including "any other cell (whether naturally occurring or artificially formed or modified) that contains only 1 copy of all or most chromosomes; and is capable of being used for reproductive purposes." [Human Assisted Reproductive Technology Bill: Supplementary Order Paper [HART SOP], April 2003, at http://www.justice.govt.nz/pubs/other/pamphlets/2003/hart/Supp_order_paper.pdf.]

See also recent legal analysis of "nanocloning": [addendum 6-3-04]. "Nanotechnology can be used to clone machines as well as living creatures. Issues similar to those currently plaguing policy makers about biological cloning need to be raised early in the life of nanotechnology. ... Proponents of nanotechnology postulate a world where DNA strands can be custom built by repairing or replacing sequences in existing strands of DNA or even by building the entire strand, from scratch, one sequence at a time. With enough nanorobots working quickly enough, one could build a DNA strand that will produce a perfect clone. The same issues will arise, or re-arise, if nanotechnology is successful in promoting cloning of DNA segments, cells, organs, or entire organisms." (emphases added)

See also: "... It is likely that nanotechnology's efforts will lead to twists in the assumptions that lead to the resolution of cloning issues in terms of genetic bioengineering. Policy makers should anticipate, now, that in setting the boundaries for bioengineered cloning, the need to foresee issues that will arise from cloning by nanotechnology and be ready to reevaluate cloning regulation before nanotechnology perfects its own methods of cloning. If we do not anticipate the nanotechnology problems, the debate will emerge in an environment like the current one: one filled with a frenzy and uproar, rather than in an atmosphere of reflection and deliberateness." [Joel Rothstein Wolfson, "Social and Ethical Issues in Nanotechnology: Lessons from Biotechnology and Other High Technologies", 22 Biotechnology Law Report 376, No. 4 (August 2003), pp. 13-14; at: http://www.blankrome.com/publications/Articles/WolfsonNanotechnology.pdf.] (emphases added)

For a lengthy report on the U.S.'s efforts towards the new field, see Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnolog, Information Technology and Cognitive Science, NSF/DOC-sponsored report, edited by Mihail C. Roco and William Sims Bainbridge, National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Dept. of Commerce (June 2002), at: http://wtec.org/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC_report.pdf. [Back]

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