The Influence of Religiosity on Contraceptive Use and Abortion in the United States


1 W. D. Mosher, "Use of Contraception and Use of Family Planning Services in the United States: 1982-2002," Adv Data 10/350 (2004):1-36. [Back]

2 See Mosher (2004), cited above. See also L.J. Piccinino & W.E. Mosher, "Trends in Contraceptive Use in the United States: 1982-1995," Family Planning Perspectives 30/1 (1998):4-10,46. [Back]

3 See C.Y. Valenzuela, "Postovulatory Effects of Levonorgestrel in Emergency Contraception," Contraception 75 (2007): 401-02. See also H. Croxatta, "Response to Letter to Editor" (regarding "Postovulatory Effects of Levonorgestrel in Emergency Contraception"), Contraception 73 (2006): 402. [Back]

4 "Terms Used in Reference to the Fetus," American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Terminology Bulletin 1 (Sept. 1965). [Back]

5 W.K. Larimore & J.B. Stanford, "Postfertilization Effects of Oral Contraceptives and Their Relationship to Informed Consent," Archives of Family Medicine 9 (2000): 126-33. [Back]

6 J.B. Stanford & R.T. Mikolajczyk, "Mechanism of Action of Intrauterine Devices: Update and Estimation of Postfertilization Effects," American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 18 (2002): 1-15. [Back]

7 See C. Kahlenborn, J.B. Stanford, W.L. Larimore, "Postfertilization Effect of Hormonal Emergency Contraception," Annals of Pharmacotherapy 36 (2002): 465-70. See also R.T. Mikolajczk & J.B. Stanford, "Levonogestrel Emergency Contraception: A Joint Analysis of Effectiveness and Mechanism of Action," Fertility and Sterility (Feb. 21, 2007), E-publication ahead of print. [Back]

8 R.L. Birtch, O.A. Olatunbosum, & R.A. Pierson, "Ovarian Follicular Dynamics during Conventional vs. Continuous Oral Contraceptive Use," Contraception 73 (2006): 235-43. [Back]

9 J. Trussel, "Mechanism of Action of Emergency Contraceptive Pills," Contraception 74/2 (2006): 87-89. [Back]

10 M.E. Ortiz & H.B. Croxatto, "Copper-T Intrauterine Device and Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System: Biological Bases of Their Mechanism of Action," Contraception 75/6 (2007): S16-30. [Back]

11 See N. Novikova, E. Weisbert, F.Z. Stanczyk, H.B. Croxatto & I.S. Frasier, "Effectiveness of Levonorgestrel Emergency Contraception Given before or after OvulationA Pilot Study," Contraception 75 (2007): 112-18. See also I.A. Okewole, A.O. Arowojolu, O.L. Odusoga, O.A. Oloyede, O.A. Adeleye OA, J. Salu, & O.A. Dada, "Effect of Single Administration of Levonogestrel on the Menstrual Cycle," Contraception 75/5 (2007): 372-77. [Back]

12 See H.G. Koenig, "Spirituality, Wellness, and Quality of Life," Sexuality, Reproduction & Menopause 2 (2004): 76-82. See also D.W. Haffner, "Faith Matters: Communicating Sexual and Reproductive Health Values," Contraception 75 (2007): 1-3. [Back]

13 R.O. Schamp, A.L. McGaughran, S. Lang, & P.F. Doughty, "The Case against the Use of Oral Contraceptives," Journal of Biblical Ethics in Medicine 7 (1994): 22-24. [Back]

14 D. Granberg, "Conformity to Religious Norms regarding Abortion," The Sociological Quarterly 32/2 (1991): 267-75. [Back]

15 M.O. Emerson, "Through Tinted Glasses: Religion, Worldviews, and Abortion Attitudes," Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 35/1 (1996): 41-55. [Back]

16 D. Gay & J. Lynxwiler, "The Impact of Religiosity on Race Variations in Abortion Attitudes," Sociological Spectator 19/3 (1999): 359-77. [Back]

17 J.K. Cochran, M.B. Chamlin, L. Beeghley, & M. Fenwick, "Religion, Religiosity, and Nonmarital Sexual Conduct: Application of Reference Group Theory," Sociological Inquiry 74/1 (2004): 102-27. [Back]

18 See: J.K. Davidson, N.B. Moore, &K.M. Ullstrup, "Religiosity and Sexual Responsibility: Relationships of Choice," American Journal of Health Behaviors 28/4 (2004): 335-46; M.P. Dunne, R. Edwards, J. Lucke, M. Donnald, & B. Raphael, "Religiosity, Sexual Intercourse and Condom Use among University Students," Australian Journal of Public Health 18/3 (1994): 339-41; E.S. Lefkowitz, M.M. Gillen, C.L. Shearer, & T.L. Boone, "Religiosity, Sexual Behaviors, and Sexual Attitudes during Emerging Adulthood," Journal of Sex Research 41/2 (2004): 150-59; Hubbard, D. McCree, G.M. Wingood, R. DiClemente, S. Davies, & K.F. Harrington, "Sexuality and Risky Sexual Behavior in African-American Adolescent Females," Journal of Adolescent Health 33 (2003): 2-8; S.S. Rostosky, M.D. Regenerus, & M.L. Comer Wright, "Coital Debut: The Role of Religiosity and Sex Attitudes in the Add Health Survey," Journal of Sex Research 40/4 (2003): 358-67; L.B. Whitbeck, D.R. Hoyt, & K.A. Yoder, "A Risk-Amplification Model of Victimization and Depressive Symptoms among Runaway and Homeless Adolescents," American Journal of Community Psychology 27/2 (1999)): 273-96. [Back]

19 See Davidson et al. (2004), cited above. [Back]

20 See Lefkowitz et al. (2004), cited above. [Back]

21 See: L.K. Stevans, C.A. Register, & D.N. Sessions, "The Abortion Decision: A Qualitative Choice Approach," Social Indicators Research 27/4 (1992): 327-5; A. Tomal, "The Effect of Religious Membership on Teen Abortion Rates," Journal of Youth and Adolescence 30/1 (2001): 103-17. [Back]

22 See Whitbeck et al. (1999), cited above; and J.S. Manlove, E. Terry-Humen, E.N. Ikramullah, & K.A. Moore, "The Role of Parent Religiosity in Teens' Transitions to Sex and Contraception," Journal of Adolescent Health 39 (2006): 578-87. [Back]

23 J.G. Schenker & V. Rabenou, "Contraception: Traditional and Religious Attitudes," European Journal of Obstetrics, Gyncology, and Reproductive Biology 49 (1993): 15-18. [Back]

24 R. Fehring & J.M. Ohlendorf, "The Relationship between Religiosity and Contraceptive Use among Roman Catholic Women in the United States," The Linacre Quarterly 74 (2007): 135-44. [Back]

25 L.W. Tentler, Catholics and Contraception: An American History (Ithaca NY: Cornell Univ. Press, 2004). [Back]

26 S. Prothero, "Worshipping in Ignorance," The Chronicle Review (March 16, 2007), p. B6-B7. [Back]

27 W.V. D'Antonio, D. Hoge, M. Gautier, & J. Davidson, American Catholics Today: New Realities of Their Faith and Their Church (Lanham MD: Roman and Littlefield, 2007). [Back]

28 R. Jagannathan, "Relying on Surveys to Understand Abortion Behavior: Some Cautionary Evidence," American Journal of Public Health 91 (2001): 1825-31. L.B. Smith, N.E. Adler, & J.M. Tschann, "Underreporting of Sensitive Behaviors: The Case of Young Women's Willingness to Report Abortion," Health Psychology 18/1 (1999): 37-43. [Back]

29 H.G. Koenig, M. Smiley, J.A.P. Gonzales, Religion, Health, and Aging. A Review and Theoretical Integration (Westport CT: Greewood Press, 1988). [Back]

30 R. Fehring, "Physicians' and Nurses' Knowledge and Use of Natural Family Planning, The Linacre Quarterly 62 (1995): 22-28; R. Fehring, L. Hanson, & J. Stanford, "Nurse-Midwives' Knowledge and Promotion of Lactational Amenorrhea and Other Natural Family Planning Methods for Child Spacing," Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health 46/2 (2001): 68-73; J.B. Stanford, P.B. Thurman, & J.S. Lemaire, "Physicians' Knowledge and Practice regarding Natural Family Planning," Obstetrics and Gynecology 94 (1999): 672-78; R. Fehring & C. Werner, "Natural Family Planning and Catholic Hospitals: A National Survey," The Linacre Quarterly 60/4 (1993): 29-34. [Back]

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